Flashcards in Endocrine Glands Deck (34)
What are common histological features of endocrine glands?
- consists of epithelial tissue
- they lack ducts (their secretions aka hormones are secreted into the blood stream)
- they are vascular (secretory cells need to be near bloodstream/capillary bed)
- hormones may be stored in intracellular secretory granules
(some endocrine tissue/glands are derived from neural crest cells or neurons)
Whatare the embryonic origins of the anterior and posterior pituitary respectively?
(adenohypophysis ) Oral ectoderm and (neurohypophysis) neural ectoderm
Does the posterior hypophysis have secretory cells?
What are the major cell types of the anterior pituitary?
epithelial tissue mostly. Divided into 2 groups: chromophils (basophils and acidophils that contain secretory granules that interact with histology dyes) and chromophobes (stem/progenitor cells and cells that have released thier granules or lost their granules during fixation)
What hormones are produced by acidophils?
Growth Hormone and prolactin- mamotropic hormone
What hormones are produced by basoophils
glycoprotein hormones: FSH, LH, TSH and ACTH, BETA-LPH
wHAT ARE THE TWO ACIDOPHILIC cel types?
Somatotropic cells, lactotropic (or mammotropic) cells
What are the three basophilic cell types of the anterior pituitary?>
Gonadotropic, Thyrotropic, Corticotropic
Which anterior pituitary cell types secrete more than one hormone type? What hormones?
Gonadotropic (FSH and LH)
Corticotoropic (ACTH and beta-LPH)
What is the function of beta liptropin?
promotes utilization of fat
What are the major cell types of the posterior pituitary gland? What are the called collectively?
Neurons (their axons -cell bodies are in the hypothalamus) and Glial cells
Collectively called pituicytes
What hormones are secreted by the neurohypophysis?
oxytocin and vasopressin (aka ADH)
Where are oxytocin and ADH synthesized? stored?
oxytocin made in supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus from precursor neurophysin and is stored in the dilated axons called HERRING BODIES.
Vasopressin is also made in hypothalamus and stored in HERRING BODIES
How does hypothalamus regulate anterior pituitary?
by releasing and inhibiting hormones via specialized blood vessels known as the portal system.
There are no direct neural connections connecting the two
Hormones produced by zona glomerulosa is
Mineralocorticoids- primarily aldoesterone
Hormones produced by zona fasciculata is
glucocorticoids (some DHEA)
Hormone produced by zona reticularis is
Cortisol and a weak androgen
Hormone produced by medulla is
Which cells react with chrome or silver salts in the adrenal gland?
cells of the medulla
What zone of adrenal cortex has rounded cords of cells?
What zone of adrenal cortex has long cords of cells?
What zone of adrenal cortex has an irregular meshwork?
What zone of adrenal glandhas clumps or cords of cells?
How do steroid-producing cells appear?
foamy- especially in the zona fasciculata
What is major secretory product of the thyroid follicular cells?
T3 AND T4
What is function of the parafollicular cellS?
What cell type produces PTH?
What major hormones are produced by adipose tissue?
Leptin, Adiponectin, Steroid hormones (androgens and estrogens)
What is function of adinopectin?
regulates fatty acid and glucos metabolism and modulates sensitibity to insulin