Endocrine Glands Flashcards Preview

Microanatomy Unit 6 > Endocrine Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Glands Deck (34)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are common histological features of endocrine glands?

- consists of epithelial tissue
- they lack ducts (their secretions aka hormones are secreted into the blood stream)
- they are vascular (secretory cells need to be near bloodstream/capillary bed)
- hormones may be stored in intracellular secretory granules
(some endocrine tissue/glands are derived from neural crest cells or neurons)

2

Whatare the embryonic origins of the anterior and posterior pituitary respectively?

(adenohypophysis ) Oral ectoderm and (neurohypophysis) neural ectoderm

3

Does the posterior hypophysis have secretory cells?

no

4

What are the major cell types of the anterior pituitary?

epithelial tissue mostly. Divided into 2 groups: chromophils (basophils and acidophils that contain secretory granules that interact with histology dyes) and chromophobes (stem/progenitor cells and cells that have released thier granules or lost their granules during fixation)

5

What hormones are produced by acidophils?

Growth Hormone and prolactin- mamotropic hormone

6

What hormones are produced by basoophils

glycoprotein hormones: FSH, LH, TSH and ACTH, BETA-LPH

7

wHAT ARE THE TWO ACIDOPHILIC cel types?

Somatotropic cells, lactotropic (or mammotropic) cells

8

What are the three basophilic cell types of the anterior pituitary?>

Gonadotropic, Thyrotropic, Corticotropic

9

Which anterior pituitary cell types secrete more than one hormone type? What hormones?

Gonadotropic (FSH and LH)
Corticotoropic (ACTH and beta-LPH)

10

What is the function of beta liptropin?

promotes utilization of fat

11

What are the major cell types of the posterior pituitary gland? What are the called collectively?

Neurons (their axons -cell bodies are in the hypothalamus) and Glial cells

Collectively called pituicytes

12

What hormones are secreted by the neurohypophysis?

oxytocin and vasopressin (aka ADH)

13

Where are oxytocin and ADH synthesized? stored?

oxytocin made in supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus from precursor neurophysin and is stored in the dilated axons called HERRING BODIES.

Vasopressin is also made in hypothalamus and stored in HERRING BODIES

14

How does hypothalamus regulate anterior pituitary?

by releasing and inhibiting hormones via specialized blood vessels known as the portal system.
There are no direct neural connections connecting the two

15

Hormones produced by zona glomerulosa is

Mineralocorticoids- primarily aldoesterone

16

Hormones produced by zona fasciculata is

glucocorticoids (some DHEA)

17

Hormone produced by zona reticularis is

Cortisol and a weak androgen

18

Hormone produced by medulla is

Catecholamines

19

Which cells react with chrome or silver salts in the adrenal gland?

cells of the medulla

20

What zone of adrenal cortex has rounded cords of cells?

glomerulosa

21

What zone of adrenal cortex has long cords of cells?

zona fasciculata

22

What zone of adrenal cortex has an irregular meshwork?

zona reticularis

23

What zone of adrenal glandhas clumps or cords of cells?

medulla

24

How do steroid-producing cells appear?

foamy- especially in the zona fasciculata

25

What is major secretory product of the thyroid follicular cells?

T3 AND T4

26

What is function of the parafollicular cellS?

Produce calcitonin

27

What cell type produces PTH?

CHIEF CELLS

28

What major hormones are produced by adipose tissue?

Leptin, Adiponectin, Steroid hormones (androgens and estrogens)

29

What is function of adinopectin?

regulates fatty acid and glucos metabolism and modulates sensitibity to insulin

30

What hromone deficiency can lead to T2D?

Leptin