Endocrine System Lab Flashcards Preview

Physiology Lab Exam #4 > Endocrine System Lab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Lab Deck (23):
1

Metabolism

is the broad range of biochemical reactions occurring in the body. It includes anabolism and catabolism.

2

Anabolism

is the building up of small molecules into larger, more complex molecules via enzymatic reactions.

3

Catabolism

is the breakdown of large, complex molecules into smaller molecules via enzymatic reactions. The breaking of chemical bonds in catabolism releases energy that the cell can use to perform various activities, such as forming ATP.

4

Thyroxine

the most important hormone for maintaining metabolism and body heat

5

Hormones are chemicals secreted from ____ glands.

endocrine

6

_____ ensure that if the body needs a hormone it will be produced until there is too much of it.

Negative feedback mechanism

7

After menopause, the ovaries will stop producing and secreting:

Estrogen

8

_____ is the hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas that allows our cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream.

Insulin

9

Type 1 diabetes

when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin

10

Type 2 diabetes

when the pancreas produces enough sufficient insulin but the body fails to respond to it.

11

What was the effect of thyroxine injections on the normal rat's BMR?

The metabolic rate increased.

12

What was the effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) injections on the normal rat's BMR?

It increased.

13

What was the effect of propylthiouracil (PTU) injections on the rat's BMR? Why did this rat develop a palpable goiter?

It slowed the metabolic rate. PTU inhibits production of thyroxine.

14

Why were ovariwctomized rats used in this experiment? How does the fact that the rate are ovariwctomized explain their baseline T scores?

Each has a baseline T score of -2.61 indicating OSTEOPOROSIS.

15

Endocrine system

coordinates and integrates the functions of different physiological systems. It's a critical role in maintaining homeostasis.

16

Endocrine glands

secrete hormones into the extracellular fluid compartments.

17

____ are fast-acting hormones that attach to a plasma-membrane receptor and cause a second-messenger cascade in the cytoplasm of the target cell.

Peptide and catecholamine hormones

18

Tropic hormones

stimulate the secretion of other hormones.

19

Glucagon

stimulates the breakdown of stored glycogen into glucose, which is then released back into the blood.

20

Follicle-stimulating hormone

is an anterior pituitary peptide hormone that stimulates ovarian follicle growth.

21

osteopenia

bone thinning T scores = -1.0 to -2.49

22

calcitonin

(secreted the thyroid glands) is a peptide hormone that counteract the development of osteoporosis.

23

Cortisol

hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, is important in the body's response to many kids of stress.