Endocrinology Treatments Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrinology Treatments Deck (32)
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1

Addison's
(primary renal insufficiency, lack of cortisol and aldosterone)

Hydrocortisone
Fludrocortisone

2

Conn's syndrome
(primary hyperaldosteronism)

Adrenalectomy if unilateral
Spironolactone to reduce BP if bilateral hyperplasia

3

Cushing's syndrome
(excess cortisol)

Surgical treatment (adrenalectomy)
Metyrapone
Ketoconazole
Pasireotide

4

Phaeochromocytoma
(secretes catecholamines)

Full alpha and beta blockade.
Phenoxybenzamine and propranolol/atenolol/metaprolol
Laparoscopic removal +/- chemo

5

Osteoporosis

Calcium and vitamin D supplements
Bisphosphonates - alendronate and risedronate (osteonecrosis of jaw)
Strontium post-menopause
Denosumab
Teriparatide
Hormone replacement therapy
Selective oestrogen receptor modulators
Testosterone

6

Paget's disease of bone

Analgesia
Bisphosphonates

7

Hypercalcaemia (acute management)

Fluids
Loop diuretics once rehydrated
Bisphosphonates

8

Acute hypocalcaemia

IV calcium gluconate (10ml, 10%)
(same treatment as hyperkalaemia!)

9

Hypoparathyroidism

Calcium supplement and Vitamin D

10

Rickets and Osteomalacia

Vitamin D (D3 tablets, calcitrol) or combined calcium and vitamin D (adcal D3)

11

Vitamin D-resistant Rickets

Phosphate and vitamin D

12

Type 1 Diabetes

Insulin

13

Type 2 Diabetes

Biguanides (Metformin)
Sulfonylureas (Gliclazide, Glibenclamide)
Glinides (Repaglinide)
Thiazolidinediones (Pioglitazone)
GLP-1 receptor agonists (Exenatide)
DPP-4 inhibitors (Sitagliptin)
SGLT-2 inhibitors (Empagliflozin)
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (Acarbose)

14

Type 3 Diabetes (gestational)

Dietary advice
Insulin might be needed

15

MODY
(C-peptide still measured as endogenous insulin still produced)

Glucokinase mutation - no treatment (stable hyperglycaemia)
Transcription factor mutation - sulfonylureas

16

Gestational diabetes

Metformin or insulin

17

Permanent neonatal diabetes

Insulin or sulfonylureas

18

Alcohol-induced ketoacidosis

Pabrinex (thiamine) and IV fluids (dextrose)
Potassium supplementation

19

Diabetic ketoacidosis

IV fluids (0.9% sodium chloride)
IV insulin infusion
Continue established subcutaneous insulin therapy
Once glucose falls below 14mmol/l, IV glucose 10%

20

Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Fluid replacement

21

Lactic acidosis

Treat underlying cause (fluids and antibiotics)

22

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Weight loss, lifestyle modifications, folic acid.
Metformin
Clomifene citrate
Gonadotrophin therapy
Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy

23

Premature Ovarian Failure

Hormone replacement therapy

24

Acromegaly

trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery +/- external radiotherapy.

25

Diabetes Insipidus

Desmospray, desmopressin tablets, or desmopressin injection

26

Panhypopituitarism

Hormone replacement therapy
Thyroxine
Hydrocortisone
ADH (desmospray)
GH
Sex steroids (combined contraceptive pill or testosterone)

27

Raised prolactin

Dopamine agonists (cabergoline)

28

SIADH
(water retained)

Limit fluid intake
Furosemide
Tolvaptan (aquaretic)

29

Grave's disease
(low TSH, high free T3/T3, hypercalcaemia and raised Alk Phos, leucopenia

Carbimazole
Propylthiouracil
Beta blockers

30

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Levothyroxine