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Biology-2-Nucleic Acids > Energy and ATP > Flashcards

Flashcards in Energy and ATP Deck (7)
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1

what is the structure of ATP

adenine- a nitrogen containing organic base
ribose- a sugar molecule with a 5C ring structure that acts as the backbone to which the other parts are attached
phosphate-a chain of 3 phosphate groups

2

what does atp stand for

adenosine triosphosphate

3

how does ATP store energy

the bonds between the 3 phosphate groups are unstable and so have a lower activation energy, which means they are easily broken, when they do break they release a considerable amount of energy

4

how is atp converted into ADP+P

water is used to convert atp into adp, this is known as hydrolysis, the reaction is catalysed by the enzyme ATP hydrolase.

ATP+H2O-->ADP+P+ENERGY

5

how is adp converted into atp

energy can be used to add an inorganic phsophate to adp to form atp, it is catalysed by the enzyme ATP synthase. water is removed therefore its a condensation reaction

6

why is ATP a better immediate energy source then glucose

each atp molecule releases less energy then each glucose molecule. the energy for reactions is therefore released in smaller, more manageable quantities

the hydrolysis of atp to adp is a single reaction that releases immediate energy, breakdown of glucose is a long series of reactions and therefore the energy release takes longer

7

what is atp used in cells which are energy requiring processes

-metabolic processes- provides energy to build up macromolecules from their basic units
-movement- provides energy for muscle contraction
-active transport- provides energy to change shape of carrier proteins in plasma membranes
-secretion- needed to form lysosomes necessary for the secretion of cell products
-activation of molecules- inorganic phosphate released during hydrolysis of atp can be used to phosphorylate other compounds to make them more reactive, thus lowering the activation energy enzyme catalysed reactions