Enlightenment Units 1-4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Enlightenment Units 1-4 Deck (40)
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What geographic factors influenced the diffusion of Enlightenment ideas?

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1

Why might historians come to different interpretations about the same historic events?

• Different evidence
• Different sources (P or S)

2

Why should all societies live under a social contract?

• There's an agreement between the people & the government, in which the people give up state of nature for organized society

3

Why & How did new "Enlightened" ideas come about?

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4

How did accessibility & hierarchy lead to the diffusion of enlightened ideas?

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5

How might enlightened ideas spark revolutionary movements?

People started thinking for themselves

6

Why might historians come to different conclusions about the influence that the enlightenment had on society, government and economics?

• Different perspectives
• Different sources/evidence

7

Social Contract

An agreement by which people give up the state of nature for an organized society

8

Human Rights

Fundamental rights belonging to an individual and in whose exercise a government may not interfere

9

State of Nature

How people would behave if left unchecked by an organized society

10

Renaissance

A time of rebirth of learning, particularly the ideas of the Ancient Greeks and Romans, which had been lost to Europeans in the chaos of the early Middle Ages

11

Enlightenment

A philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious and educational doctrine

12

Reformation

The religious movement in the 16th century that's objective was the reformation of the Catholic Church

13

Humanism

A way of thinking about people and their place in the world

14

Diffusion

How people or things move in certain directions at certain speeds

15

Hierarchy

any system of persons or things ranked one above another.

16

Accessibility

that can be used, entered, reached, etc.: an accessible road; accessible ruins.

17

Free Market

an economic system in which prices and wages are determined by unrestricted competition between businesses, without government regulation or fear of monopolies.

18

Salons

an assembly of guests in such a room, especially an assembly, common during the 17th and 18th centuries, consisting of the leaders in society, art, politics, etc.

19

Primary Source

first in time; earliest; primitive source of information

20

Secondary Source

next after the first in order, place, time etc. source of information

21

Interpretation

Conclusions influenced by personal opinions

22

Point of View

Personal influences such as nationality, race, gender, age & personal background

23

Perspective

The time period on which a person lives and writes

24

Divine Rights Theory

The theory that monarchs receive their power from God and consequently should not be questioned or disobeyed

25

Why might philosophers challenge the Divine Rights Theory?

The people read The Bible for themselves

26

Absolute Monarch/Absolutism

Ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs. Ex: Louis XIV (France), Hapsburg family (Marie Antoinnettes mother)

27

Why did Humanism & The Renaissance begin in Florence, Italy?

• In the center of the Roman Empire
• Cities survived the Middle Ages
• Wealthy & powerful merchant classes further prompted the cultural rebirth

28

How might the physical geography of Italy influence the diffusion of Renaissance ideas?

The Alps & mountains within Italy limited accessibility by land, so the diffusion of ideas took place by sea

29

What were the 3 effects of the printing revolution?

1. Made book production easier
2. More people learned to read/Literacy rate increased
3. Readers gained access to a broad range of knowledge