Enquiry 3 How Successful Is The Management Of Tectonic Hazards And Disasters? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Enquiry 3 How Successful Is The Management Of Tectonic Hazards And Disasters? Deck (21):

Tectonic disaster trends and patterns

Global scale
Deaths have decreased and economic losses have increased

International aid and preparedness= less people are affected

Number of tectonic disasters have fluctuated (peak 2000 and low in 2012)

Estimated that hydro-meteorological hazards and human induced disasters caused more fatalities than tectonic disasters (due to slow onset)


Mega disasters

Large scale- areal/spatial

VEI6 eruption
Weeks/months after = global supply chain disrupted
Years later= climate effects in areas 10,000km away

EYJAFJ eruption
Global effects= imports/exports into Europe effected by air travel shutdown
Car manufacturing (Nissan plant stop cube production)


Disaster statistics

Statistics hard to collect

Particularly in rural/remote of LHD countries (Kashmir)

Declaration of disaster deaths may be subject to political bias (2004 tsunami played down for tourism)

Direct/indirect deaths (associated diseases/subsequent hazards)


Since 1960s

Rapid urbanisation

Increased vulnerability

Squatter settlements

1980 $10b

2010 $350b


Prediction and forecasting (volcanoes)

Thermal imaging (Mt St. Helens bulge 1980)

Earthquake/Lamar sensors

Satellite surveying cameras


Prediction and forecasting (seismic gap)

Records movements

Predicts relative size/frequency of earthquakes in given area


Prediction and forecasting (earthquakes)

Tiltometers (changes in mountain shape as magma moves)

Seismometers (still into plate and out sensors)


Prediction and forecasting (tsunamis)

Time depends on proximity to epicentre

Early warning stations (deep ocean)

Pressure sensors seabed (height/speed)

Sensor send data to tsunami centre

Issues warning (3 minute in Japan)


Hazard management cycle


Rescue (aid to keep people alive)



Rehabilitation (rebuild infrastructure)

Mitigation (acts to reduce scale of next disaster)


Preparation (death toll reduced when prepared)

Warning (community education/building resilience)


Parks model

Different hazard events have different impacts so vary in duration, speed and destruction of quality of life

Relief (weeks) immediate response/ saving lives/ teams from outside area

Rehabilitation last several months to restore physical/community structures

Reconstruction permanent changed to restore quality of life


Modify the event

Land use zoning (safe to build infrastructure) prevents development in high value land

Hazard resistant design (invest construction which have safety designs) high costs for tall

Engineering defences (tsunami wall) v high cost

Diversion of lava flows (spray seawater to cool and solidify flow- mount Etna) only low vei basaltic

KEY PLAYERS- engineers/ scientists/ planners


Modify resilience and vulnerability

Hi tech monitoring (international satellites monitor changes in earth)

Prediction -changes in volcanic shape/ low mag earthquakes

Education- teach communities about hazards

Community preparedness- earthquake drills and alarms

Community actions and strong governmental policies improve capacity to cope


Modify loss

Short term emergency aid- reduce death toll : high cost/technical difficulty

Insurance- recover economically : does not save lives


Multiple hazard zone

No of physical hazards combine

Taiwan has 4

Japan has 4

May be recovering from one when another hits


Multiple hazard zone (Californian coast)

Drought 2008-11 & 2012-15

Earthquakes (san Andreas) usually shallow

Volcanoes (cascades subduction zone)

Last time 100+ died in disaster 1933


Multiple hazard zone (Philippines)

Earthquakes- frequent and vary in depth

Drought- rare but El Niño does cause (1999& 2010)

Volcanoes- very common/ frequent and violent (Lahars and ash)


Tohoku tsunami Japan 2011

Mag 9

Eroded trust in gov

Fukushima nuclear power plant (Release radioactive and contaminate Pacific Ocean)

63% died = 60+

15,749 dead

Asian market impact (quickest rate of increasing energy consumption)



Much less precise than predicting and provides a percentage chance of a hazard occurring



Knowing when and where a natural hazard will strike on a spatial and temporal scale and can be acted on meaningfully in terms of evacuation


Recovery stage of hazard management

Depends on:

Magnitude of the disaster

Development level


External help


Hazard resistant design

Constructing and buildings/ infrastructure that are strong enough to resists tectonic hazards

Aseismic buildings