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Flashcards in ENT Deck (54)
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1

Cause of dacryoadenitis

clogged lacrimal duct 

2

What are the 2 most common etiologies of dacryoadenitis? 

Staph

GABHS

3

What is the MCC of viral conjunctivitis? 

adenovirus 3, 8, 19

4

MCC of bacterial conjunctivitis in non-neonates

staph aureus 

strep pneumo

5

MCC of bacterial conjunctivitis in neonates?

gonococcal, chlamydia, HSV

6

What symptom will tell you that a neonate has  bacterial conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia?

nontender preauricular lymphadenopathy

7

What is the MC etiology of Otitis externa? 

pseudomonas aeruginosa

8

CPx of Otitis Externa

  • pruritis
  • purulent discharge
  • pain with pinna and auricle movement

9

Tx of OE

ciprofloxacin/hydrocortisone

10

What is the CPx of Sialolithiasis/Sialoadenitis? 

- increased saliva production

-mouth swelling

- pain worse with meals

11

Tx of Sialodenitis/Sialolithiasis

sialogogues like lemon drops that increase salivation

12

MCC of dental caries

Strep Mutans-refer to dentist

 

**supplement fluoride to protect against dental caries**

13

MCC of peritonsillar abscess

strep pyogenes

14

Cpx of peritonsillar abscess

- hx of pharyngitis

- sore throat + odynophagia

- hot potato voice 

uvula displaced away from PTA

15

Tx of Peritonsillar Abscess

I & D + Penicillin 

 

Medical emergency!!

16

CPx of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

sudden onset sensation of room spinning w/positional changes of the head, lasting seconds-minutes

17

How is dx of BPPV made? 

Dix- Hallpike manuever: 

 

with pt sitting up, turn head 45 degrees to one side, lie pt down with head overhanging the edge of the bed & look for nystagmus, repeat on contralateral side

18

Tx of BPPV

epley maneuver

19

"blood and thunder" 

Central retinal vein occlusion

20

Sxs of retinal vein occlusion

sudden, painless loss of vision

 

21

What will you see on PE (fundoscopic exam) of retinal vein occlusion? 

dilated & tortuous retinal veins-- MC presentation

cotton wool spots

diffuse intraretinal hemorrhages 

swollen optic disk

retinal edema

 

22

Pt with retinal vein occlusion will usually have a hx of what two diseases? 

HTN

T2DM

23

Tx for perforated tympanic membrane

ofloxacin

24

What ear drops should you avoid for a perforated typmanic membrane? 

aminoglycosides (ototoxic)

25

Signs/sxs of HSV 1 infection

Oral***

prodrome of pain/burning/tingling eruption of painful, grouped vesicles on erythematous base

26

Tx of HSV 1 infection

anti-virals (virs)

27

What do you see on Tzanck smear of HSV1 vesicles? 

multinucleated giant cells

28

CPx of Infectious Mononucleosis

fever, sore throat

posterior cervical LAD

splenomegaly

29

Dx of infectious mono

monospot Ab test

30

Cpx of orbital cellulitis

proptosis, pain, fever, increased IOP

restricted/painful eye movement

 

**usually 2ry to sinus infections**

31

Workup for orbital cellulitis

orbital + sinus CT scan

32

MCC of acute conjunctivitis

viral infection: serous/clear discharge

33

What is a cholesteatoma? 

Keratinized, desquamated collection of epithelial cells located in the middle ear 

34

What kind of hearing loss is associated with a cholesteatoma? 

conductive hearing loss

35

Sxs of acquired cholesteatoma

hx of chronic ear infections or tympanostomy tubes 

c/o painless otorrhea

36

What will cholesteatoma look like on PE? 

yellow/white mass behind tympanic membrane

37

CPx of macular degeneration

older pt

c/o b/l gradual, central field vision loss

38

What will PE show in macular degeneration? 

Drusen spots (atrophic changes and yellow retinal deposits) 

 

39

How is Dx of Macular degeneration made?

Amsler grid 

40

Cpx of pt with Pterygium? 

Pt has hx of excessive sunlight exposure

c/o "something in the eye"

41

What is 1st line tx of Group A strep? 

Penicillin

42

CPx of dacryo stenosis

newborn, c/o eye discharge

43

What will Dacryostenosis PE show? 

Large tear lake

overflow of years onto the cheek

presence of mucoid material in the canthi

44

Tx for dacryostenosis

nasolacrimal massage 2-3 times daily & cleansing with warm water

45

What will the hx of a pt with corneal ulcer be? 

hx of trauma, incomplete closure or extended contact lens use

46

PE of corneal ulcer

oval ulcer with ragged edges, severe conjunctival inflammation

47

sudden hearling loss can occur during what procedure? 

cerumen impaction removal

48

Best initial mgmt of acute mastoiditis 

CT scan 

Empiric IV abx (vancomycin)

 

 

49

CPx of acute mastoiditis

pain + swelling of post-auricular area

PE: tenderness w/palpation, warmth, erythema, swelling behind ear

forward displacement of external ear

fever

50

typical cause of mastoiditis

untreated acute otitis media

51

What causes acute painful loss of vision? 

optic neuritis

52

Optic Neuritis Cpx

sudden loss of monocular vision

pain w/movement of affected eye

loss of color (red) vision

Uhthoff phenomenon (transient worsening of vision w/increased body temperature)

53

Optic Neuritis tx

IV corticosteroids

54