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Flashcards in ENT ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Deck (51):
1

Inner ear
Contains three fluid-filled structures and what are they?

1. Vestibule
2. Semicircular canals
3. Cochlea

2

Blood supply to the ear
Two branches of the external carotid artery. What are they?

1. Posterior auricular artery
2. Superficial temporal artery

3

What nerve supply the external ear?
4

1. Auriculo-temporal branch of the trigeminal nerve,
2. greater auricular nerve,
3. lesser occipital nerve
4. auricular branch of the vagus nerve

4

What nerves supply the middle ear?
2

1. Chorda tympani nerve
2. Tympanic plexus nerve

5

What nerves supply the inner ear?

1. Facial nerve (VII)
2. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

6

What is the concave cartilaginous structure that collects and directs sound waves traveling in the air into the ear canal?

Pinna/Aurical

7

1. How long is the ear canal?

2. How long is the ear canal?

3. 2/3 is embedded where?
1/3 is embedded where?

1. Pinna/Aurical
Concave cartilaginous structure that collects and directs sound waves traveling in the air into the ear canal

Ear canal
2. Approximately 1.25 in long

3. Inner 2/3 of ear canal is embedded in the temporal bone
Outer 1/3 of the canal is cartilage

8

Functions of the ear canal?
3

1. Ear canal resonates sound waves and increases loudness of tones in the 3000-4000 hz range

2. Maintains proper conditions of temperature & humidity to preserve elasticity of the TM

3. Contains glands that produce wax (cerumen) and contains tiny hairs which provides added protection against insects or foreign particles from damaging the TM

9

What is the middle ear composed of? 2

Composed of the TM and cavity which houses the ossicular chain

10

1. The TM divides what?

2. What is it very sensitive to?

1. Divides external & middle ear

2. Very sensitive to sound waves and vibrates back- and- forth as sound waves strike it

11

1. Where is the middle ear cavity located?

2. The cavity is an extension of what?

3. Functions of the eustachian tube? 3

1. Located in the mastoid process of the temporal bone

2. The cavity is an extension of the nasopharynx via the Eustachian tube (ET)

ET
1. Air exchange: keeping the air pressure on both sides of the TM equal
2. Excretory: drainage for the middle ear
3. Defense: helps in preventing infection

12

1. Function of the ossicular chain?
2. What does it consist of? 3
3. What are the two muscles that attach to the ossicles?

1. Helps connect and transmit sound from middle to inner ear

2. Consist of the malleus, incus, stapes
-Malleus: attached to TM
-Incus: lies in the middle between the malleus & stapes
-Stapes: footplate inserts into the oval window of the inner ear

3. Two tiny muscles attach to the ossicles
-Stapedius
-Tensor tympanic

13

What is the inner ear composed of? 2

1. Composed of the cochlea (hearing) and vestibular system (balance)

Both systems are have separate functions but are housed in the same area and share the same fluid

14

The cohclea is compised of three fluid filled chambers. What are they filled with? 2

1. Two outer chambers are filled with perilymph fluid
2. Third chamber in the center secretes endolymph, this area is called the cochlear duct

15

Inner ear (cont’d)
Cochlear duct contains a basilar membrane which lies the Organ of Corti
The “pitch” of the impulses relayed depends on what?

which area of basilar membrane or which portion of the Organ of Corti is stimulated

16

Apical portion (most curled) transfers 1.______ frequencies and the basal end relays 2.______ frequencies

VIII cranial nerve carries the impulses to the 3.____________of the brain to be interpreted

1. lower
2. higher

3. temporal lobe

17

1. What is the vestibular system composed of? What are they? 3
2. Function?

1. Composed of
-three semi-circular canals
-Utricle
-Saccule

2. Helps to maintain balance regardless of head position or gravity in conjunction with the eye and somatosensory input

18

The nose and nasopharynx have several functions:
4

1. Identification of odors
2. Passageway for inspired and expired air
3. Humidification, filtration, and warmth of inspired air
4. Resonance of laryngeal sound

19

The roof of the nasal cavity is divided into three parts. What are they?
3

What does the floor of the nasal cavity consist of? 2

1. Frontonasal
2. Ethmoidal
3. Sphenoidal

Floor:
1. consists of palatine process of maxilla and
2. horizontal plate of palatine bone

20

What makes of the medial walls of the nasal cavity? 5

What makes up the lateral walls of the nasal cavity?

1. Medial:
-nasal septum,
-ethmoid bone,
-vomer,
-nasal crest of maxillary and
-palatine boned

2. Lateral: hallmarked by 3 nasal conchae, which divide nasal cavity into 4 passages that have openings to paranasal sinuses

21

What are paranasal sinuses and what are the four?

Air filled cavities lined with mucosal membrane with small openings into the nasal cavity

4 sinuses:
Maxillary
Frontal
Sphenoid
Ethmoid

22

Nerve supply to the nose? 2


What is the blood supply to the nose? 2

1. Infratrochlear and external nasal branches of ophthalmic nerve,
2, infraorbital branch of maxillary nerve (both are part of CN V)

Branches of the ophthalmic and maxillary arteries

23

How does the eustachian tube function in the nose?

Permits the nose to equalize pressure of air between external atmosphere and middle ear

24

1._____ is the area where molecular reception with the odorant occurs and sensory transmission starts

2. Each olfactory receptor neuron has how many?

3. Olfactory neuron receptors turnover about every ___ days

1. Cilia

2. 8-20 cilia

3. 40

25

Olfaction
1. At the bulb the neurons converge to terminate with post-synaptic cells to form synaptic structures called what?

2. What do these converge into?

3. From the here the response increases the sensitivity of the olfactory signal to where?

1. glomeruli

2. mitral cells
3. higher levels of the CNS in the corticomedial amygdala portion of the brain

26

Function of the mouth:
8

1. Begin process of digestion
2. Chews food and mixes it with saliva
3. Taste buds on tongue provide sensation of taste
4. Important role in speech
Also used for:
5. Breathing
6. Drinking
7. Facial expressions
8. Social interactions

27

Function of the salivary glands?

What are the three major glands?

Salivary glands- Produce and secrete fluid called saliva

3 major glands:
-Parotid glands
-Submandibular glands
-Sublingual glands

28

1. What is the largest salivary gland?

2. What nerve runs through the parotid? What does it control?

3. 5 branches lie within the gland. What are they?

1. Parotid
2. Facial nerve runs through the parotid
2. Controls muscle of face
3. 5 branches lie within the gland
-Temporal,
-zygomatic,
-buccal****
-mandibular****
-cervical

29

Where are the taste receptors on the tongue?
5

5 basic types of taste sensation
1. Sweet sensation
-Organics (sugar, glycols, aldehyde)
-Tip of tongue

2. Bitter sensation
-Alkaloids (quinine, caffeine) harmful
-Back of tongue

3. Salty sensation
-Anions of ionizable salts (NaCl, NaBr)
-Front half of each side

4. Sour sensation
-Acids (acetic acid, tartaric acid)
-Posterior half of each side

5. Umami
-Referred to as the savory taste

30

What are the 4 extrinsic and 4 instrinsic portions of the tongue?

Extrinsic
1. Genioglossus
2. Hyoglossus
3. Styloglossus
4. Palatoglossus

Intrinsic
1. Superior longitudinal
2. Inferior longitudinal
3. Verticle
4. transverse

31

Arteries supplying the mouth? 4

Nerve innervation? 3

Blood supply
1. Lingual artery
2. Sublingual
3. Deep lingual
4. Dorsal lingual

Nerve inervation
Sensory
Anterior 2/3
1. Lingual & chorda tympani
Posterior 1/3
2. Glossopharyngeal nerve

Motor
3. CN XII, except palatoglossus muscle (CN X)

32

What is the funnel shaped fibro-muscular tube that forms the upper part of the digestive and respiratory tracts?

Pharynx

33

Nasopharynx:
1. Opens at the ____?
2. Extends from _______ superiorly to _______ inferiorly
3. Contains what? 2

1. choana
2. skull base
soft palate

3. pharyngeal tonsils and Eustachian tube

34

1. Oropharynx begins where?
2. What forms the floor?
3. lateral wall? 2
4. roof?

1. Begins where oral cavity ends
2. Base of tongue forms the floor
3. Palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches form the lateral wall
4. Soft palate forms the roof

35

What are the walls formed by of the laryngopharynx?

Walls are formed by thyroid cartilage and middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles

36

Arteries of the pharynx?
5

1. Supplied by facial artery, given off the tonsilar branch
2.Ascending pharyngeal artery
3. Ascending palatine artery
4. Dorsalis lingua artery
5. Greater palatine artery

37

Nerve supply of the pharynx?
3

1. Maxillary nerve
2. Glossopharyngeal nerve
3. Vagus nerve

38

Function of the pharynx?
5

1. Swallowing
2. Breathing
3. Speech
4. Equalize pressure in middle ear
5. Immunity

39

Larynx is responsible for what functions? 4

Responsible for
1. producing voice,
2. swallowing, and
3. breathing
4. helps protect lower airway

40

What are the three cartilages that compose the larynx?
3

1. Cricoid,
2. thyroid,
3. epiglottis

41

What is the epiglottis?

A leaf-shaped structure that moves down to from a lid over the glottis
Attached by stem to midline inner aspect of the thyroid cartilage

42

1. What are vocal cords?
2. Comprised of? 2
3. Is the glottis open or closed during sound production?

1. “fold-like” soft tissue that is the main vibratory component
2. Comprised of epithelium and superficial propria
3. closed

43

Vocal cords
Spoken words results from 3 components. What are they?


What are the three subsystems that help with voice mechanisms?

1. Voiced sound
2. Resonance
3. Articulation

1. Air pressure system
2. Vibratory system
3. Resonating system

44

Describe the Voice organs and Role in sound production that are associated with the following subsystems:
1. Air pressure system? 5 organs
2. Vibratory system? 1 organ
3. Resonating system? 3 organs

AIR PRESSURE
1.
-Diaphragm,
-chest muscles,
-ribs,
-abdominal muscles
-Lungs

2. Provides and regulates air pressure to cause vocal folds to vibrate

VIBRATORY
1. Voice box (larynx)Vocal folds
2. Vocal folds vibrate, changing air pressure to sound waves producing “voiced sound,” frequently described as a “buzzy sound”Varies pitch of sound

RESONATING
1. Vocal tract:
-throat (pharynx),
-oral cavity,
-nasal passages
2. Changes the “buzzy sound” into a person’s recognizable voice

45

Muscles of the larynx?
5

1. Cricothyroid muscles
2. Posterior cricoarytenoid muscles
3. Lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
4. Transverse arytenoid muscles
5. Thyroarytenoid muscles

46

1. Nerve supply of the larynx? 2
2. Blood supply? 2

Nerves supply
1. Superior laryngeal nerve
2. Recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X)

Blood supply
1. Superior laryngeal artery

2. Inferior laryngeal artery

47

Zygomatic arch consist of portions of 3 bones

1. Maxilla
2. Zygomatic bone
3. Temporal bone

48

What elevates the mandible to bit?
3

1. Masseter muscle,
2. temporalis muscle, and
3. lateral/medial pterygoid muscle

49

What is the blood supply to the jaw and neck?
2

1. Common carotids
2. External/Internal jugular veins

50

What are the boundaries of the anterior cervical triangle?
3

WHat are the 4 small triangles that make up the anterior cervical triangle?

1. Bounded by the midline anteriorly
2. Mandible superiorly
3. Sternocleidomastoid muscle inferolaterally

1. 1 submandibular triangle
2. 2 carotid triangle
3. 3 muscular or omotracheal triangle
4. Submental triangle

51

WHat are the boundaries of the posterior cervical triangle?
3

Inferior belly ofomohyoid divides this triangle into 2 triangles?

1. Bounded by clavicle inferiorly
2. Sternocleidomastoid muscle anterosuperiorly
3. Trapezius muscle posteriorly

1. 1 occipital triangle
2. 2 subclavian triangle