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Flashcards in ENT and Dermatology conditions Deck (32):
1

what is otitis media with effusion

glue ear

chronic inflammatory condition, without acute inflammation, follows AOM

2

Causes of AOM

vial - rsv

bacterial - pneumonia, HiB, Group B strep

3

Features AOM

earache, deafness

red eardrum, loss light relfex, bulging tympanic membrane, perforation, discharge

4

features glue ear

Eardrum dull and retracted fluid level seen

5

Investigations Of Glue ear

Examination, culture of discharge, CT MRI

6

Management Of glue ear

Conservative, admit if less than three monthsPlusMore than 38°, complication

Amoxicillin five days if perforated, systemically unwell, immunocompromised

7

Glue ear plus hearing loss management

Grommet

8

Structures affected in otitis externa

Oracle, external auditory canal, outersurface of eardrum

9

Causative organisms of otitis externa

90% bacterial Staph, p aeruginosa

10% fungal Aspergillus

10

Features otitis externa

Discharge, hearing loss

11

Examination of otitis externa

Erythema, edema, pain with movement of tragus

12

Management otitis externa

Topical drops-Acetic acid, antibiotics-neomycin

Oral Flucloxacillin if systemically unwell, Perry auricula lymphadenopathy

13

Definition of glaucoma

Raised intraocular pressure causes damage to optic nerve with progressive loss of retinal ganglion cellsAnd progressive loss of visual field

14

Early stage glaucoma affects which parts of visual fields

Peripheral

15

What is raised I OP

More than 26 mmHg

16

Which ethnicities are more likely to develop closed angle glaucoma and open-angle glaucoma

East Asian-closed angle

African- Open Angle

17

What are features of glaucoma

Pain blurred vision coloured halos

18

Diagnosis of acute angle-closure glaucoma

Pain, nausea vomiting, intermittent blurring with halos, Conjunctival injection, Epithelial oedema mid dilated non-reactive people

19

Precipitants of acute angle-closure glaucoma

Women longsighted vision
60s and 70s
Medications which dilate people

20

Investigations glaucoma

Visual acuity
Intraocular eye pressures

21

Management glaucoma (not acute angle-closure)

Prostaglandin analogues latanprost
Beta blockers
Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists

Trabeculectomy

Laser surgery
Drainage implants

22

Enrichment angle-closure glaucoma

Urgent referral to ophthalmology
IV azetazolomide
Analgesia and antiemetics
Prilocaine

23

Corneal injury history

Right painful watery I, like sensitivity, foreign body sensation, must identify contact lens wearers

24

Investigation corneal injury

Slitlamp examination with fluorescien

25

Management corneal injury

Analgesia, chloramphenicol,
Refer to ophthalmology if symptoms after 36 hours

26

Corneal ulcer causes

Bacterial- pseudomonas, staph, strep viridians, e coli
herpetic
fungal - candida
vasculitis

27

Management corneal ulcers

Refer same day

Company called drops

28

Cataract causes

Deposition aggregated proteins in lens

29

Risk factors cataracts

UV light diabetes steroids

30

Management cataracts

Cataract surgery cataract surgery

31

Unilateral cataract in children

amblyopia

32

Bilateral cataracts and the DVLA

Tell DVLA