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Flashcards in ENT Textbook Deck (166)
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1

How much of the external auditory meatus cartilage and how much is bone?

Outer 1/3rd is cartilage
Inner 2/3rd is bone

2

What nerve supplies the anterior part of the auricle?

Auricotemporal branch of trigeminal

3

What nerves supply the posterior part of the auricle?

Greater auricular nerve and branches of the lesser optical nerve

4

What is anotia?

Absence of the ear

5

What symptoms can wax blocking the EAC cause?

Hearing loss
Attempts at cleaning ear may --> trauma/otitis externa

6

How can you treat a wax blocked EAC?

Softening drops, e.g. sodium bicarbonate
2nd line: syringing
3rd line: microsuction

7

What is ear syringing?

Flushing ear with water to wash out wax/debris

8

What things may predispose to OE?

Trauma
Eczema, psoriasis

9

What organisms are usually implicated in OE?

Pseudomonas, staphylococcus
Sometimes viral or fungal (e.g. aspergillus/candida)

10

Mucinous discharge in the ear must originate from where?

Middle ear (EAC doesn't have any mucous glands)

11

What are the features of OE?

Auricle is tender, esp. tragus
Discharge from ear
Reduced hearing
Itch, pain
Ear may be full of debris, skin cracked etc.

12

How is OE treated?

Microsuction to remove debris
Antibiotic and steroid ear drops

13

Who is malignant OE usually seen in?

Elderly patients with diabetes or immunocompromised patients

14

What is the most common causative organism of malignant OE?

Pseudomonas

15

What happens in malignant OE?

Infection from OE spreads to bone causing osteitis or OM in the skull base

16

What are the clinical features of malignant OE?

Pain
Cranial nerve palsies (7, 9, 10, 11)
Granulations in the meatus

17

How is malignant OE treated?

IV antibiotics and debridement

18

What are the most common tumours of the auricle?

BCC and SCC

19

What part of the ossicles is attached to the tympanic membrane?

Handle of malleus

20

Superiorly there is a small area of the tympanic membrane where the middle fibrous layer is missing - what is this layer called?

Pars flaccida

The rest of the ear drum is the pars tensa

21

In which quadrant does the cone of light sit?

Anterior inferior

22

Where does dead skin from the tympanic membrane go?

Moves laterally out the tympanic membrane and then is swept along the EAC

23

What is the path of the facial nerve in the middle ear?

Crosses medial wall of middle ear, goes posterior to oval window, turns 90 degrees and descends to exit via the stylomastoid foramen

24

What is the function of the eustachian tube?

Allows air to pass freely between middle ear and nasal cavity
(keep intranasal and middle ear pressure the same and allows O2 to get to middle ear mucosa)

25

Where is the opening of the eustachian tube into the middle ear?

Anterior wall

26

How does the eustachian tube open?

Muscles of the pharynx are attached to it and when they contract during swallowing they open it

27

What are the three ossicles called?

Malleus, incus, stapes

28

What joint connects the three ossicles?

Synovial joints

29

What part of the one of the ossicles is attached to the oval window?

Footplate of stapes

30

What is the role of the ossicles in hearing?

Transmit sound from tympanic membrane to oval window and allow for amplification