What is a hazard?
Something with the potential to cause harm
What is a risk?
The likelihood of harm occuring
What is a risk factor?
Increases the risk of harm
What is a protective factor?
Decreases the risk of harm
What is susceptibility?
Increases the likelihood that something will cause harm
What are the different type of hazards?
What are the different routes of exposure?
What are the factors that influence the degree of risk?
How much a person is exposed
How the person is exposed
Conditions of the exposure
What does the term probability encompass?
The probability that a particular outcome will occur and the severity of the the harm involved
What are the 3 principles that govern the perception of risk?
Feeling in control
Size of the possible harm
Familiarity with the risk
How does the perception of risk compare between involuntary and voluntary risks?
Involuntary risks are perceived as having a greater risk (plane trip vs car trip)
How does the a familiar risk compare with an unfamiliar risk?
Risks that are less familiar are perceived as being greater than more familiar risks
We’re more frightened by catastrophic risks, single events with large immediate consequences, than chronic risks where the damage is spread out over time and location.
What are the individual variables in risk perception?
attitudes towards risk,
Socio economic factors
What are the direct pathological effects of the environment?
Ionising and non-ionising radiation
Noise and Vibration
VOCs (volatile organic compounds)
What are the indirect pathological effects of the environment?
Housing e.g. overcrowding
Transport e.g. does it encourage walking/car use
Town planning e.g. access to amenities, social networks Income/welfare/wealth distribution
Give examples of hazardous exposure in the environment