Enzymes Flashcards Preview

clinpath test 2 > Enzymes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Enzymes Deck (13)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

(ALT)

  1. interpretation?
  2. SA vs LA?
  3. mild to mod increase ween with what endocrinopathies?
A
  1. liver damage

(musc dmg if very severe)

  1. liver specific in SA, not used in LA
  2. DM, hyperthryoid (cats), cushings (dogs), +/- hypothyroidism (dogs)
2
Q

(AST)

  1. interpretation?
A
  1. hepatocyte or muscle damage (skeletal)

(severe hemolysis rare)

3
Q

(SDH)

  1. interpretation?
A
  1. liver dmg in LA

(more specific but less sens than ALT in LA)

4
Q

(CK)

  1. interpretation?
A
  1. muscle damage

(VERY sens, mild ^ nonspecific and assoc w/ iatrogenic in LA)

5
Q

(ALP)

  1. origin?
  2. mech?
  3. General Interpretation?
A
  1. hepatocytes, biliary epi, bone
  2. ^prod
  3. post-hepatic cholestasis (esp w/ ^GGT, bilirubin) +/- cholesterol w/ time/severity

induction by drugs/hormones (corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, metabolic - hyperthyroid, cushings, DM)

^osteoblastic activity (mild): young animals, bone dz

6
Q

(GGT)

  1. origin?
  2. mech?
  3. interpretation?
A
  1. biliary epi, hepatocytes, renal tubular cells, colostrum
  2. ^prod
  3. post hepatic cholestasis or biliary hyperplasia

induction by drugs/hormones (like ALP)

general liver dz marker in LA

colostrum ingestion

7
Q

(Amylase)

  1. origin?
  2. mech?
  3. not used in what species?
  4. general interpretation?
A
  1. pancreas, intestine, liver
  2. dmg, dec clearance
  3. LA, cats
  4. pancreatic acinar dmg (esp if very high)

GI dz

decreased GFR (2-3x increase)

8
Q

(Lipase)

  1. origin?
  2. mech?
  3. not used in what spec?
  4. interp?
A
  1. pancreatic acinar cells
  2. dmg, dec clearance, maybe ^prod in some cases
  3. LA
  4. pancretic acinar dmg (esp if marked)

dec GFR

neoplasia, corticosteroid tx?

9
Q

(Trypsin-like immunoreactivity)

  1. what kind of assay?
  2. decreased = ?
  3. increased = ?
A
  1. immunologic..
  2. exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
  3. dec renal clearance, pancreatic path, intestinal dz
10
Q

1-3. What are the three mechanisms for increased serum activity?

A
  1. release from damaged cells
  2. increased production
  3. reduced clearance
11
Q
  1. how specific/sens are enzyme elevations?
A
  1. they lack both sens and spef
12
Q

(ALP)

(species diff)

  1. dog?
  2. cat?
  3. horse?
A
  1. corticosteroids, phenobarb, colostrum (<10 days), bone (young large, OSA, repair)
  2. hyperthyroidism (< 4x url), late term preg (placental ALP)
  3. colic, bone growth in foals, not affected by colostrum
13
Q

(GGT spec diff)

  1. dog?
  2. cat?
  3. horse?
  4. cow?
A
  1. like ALP but no bone
  2. lipidosis may have high ALP, normal GGT
  3. high in neonatal, used as generic screening test for liver dz
  4. colostrum, generic screening test for liver dz