Enzymes Flashcards Preview

Unit 2 Biology (Higher) > Enzymes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Enzymes Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
0

What is a catalyst?

A substance that increases the speed of a reaction, without being used up in the reaction.

1

What are enzymes made of?

Proteins, which are made of amino acids.

2

How do enzymes work?

A substance must fit the enzymes shape first, then the enzyme splits the substance into separate pieces.

3

At what temperature do human enzymes work best?

About 37°C

4

At what pH level do most enzymes work best?

pH 7 - Neutral

5

Give an example of an enzyme that works best in acidic conditions.

Pepsin: works best at around pH 2 and is found in the stomach.

6

What does the enzyme Amylase do?

Converts starch into sugars.

7

Name three places where amylase enzymes are produced.

The salivary glands, the pancreas and the small intestine.

8

What does the enzyme Protease do?

Converts proteins to amino acids.

9

Name three places where protease enzymes are made.

The stomach (also known as pepsin there), the pancreas and the small intestine.

10

What does the enzyme Lipase do?

Converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids.

11

Name two places where lipase enzymes are made.

The pancreas and the small intestine.

12

What does bile do?

Neutralises stomach acid and emulsifies fats.

13

Where is bile produced?

In the liver.

14

Where is bile stored?

In the gall bladder.

15

Why does the stomach produce hydrochloric acid?

To kill bacteria and give the correct pH for protease enzymes to work in.

16

Give two examples of industrial uses of enzymes.

As biological detergents and to change food.

17

Give some advantages of using enzymes in industry.

Enzymes remove the need for high temperatures and pressures and so save energy which saves money, enzymes work for a long time and so can be continually used and they cause less environmental damage.

18

Give some disadvantages of using enzymes in industry.

People can develop allergies, enzymes are vulnerable to minute changes in temperature and pH and they can be expensive to produce.