Flashcards in Enzymes Deck (18):
What is a catalyst?
Chemicals that speed up reactions.
Why are enzymes known as Biological Catalysts?
Because they speed up reactions (catalyst) within the body (biological).
What is the substrate?
The molecule changed in the reaction.
What is the active site?
The part where it joins on to its substrate to catalyse the reaction.
What is unique about every enzyme?
The each have a specific shaped active site so only one substrate will fit. If the shape doesn't fit the reaction won't be catalysed. This is called the 'lock and key' mechanism.
What are the 2 main types of enzymes?
Breakers and Builders. A.K.A Catabolic and Anabolic.
What do the Catabolic (Breakers) enzymes do?
They speed up the reaction of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones. This is important in digestion when large food molecules are broken down into smaller ones so that we can use them.
What do the Anabolic (Builders) enzymes do?
They speed up the reactions of small molecules joining together to make large ones. These enzymes build important molecules inside our cells.
What 3 things affect the rate of reaction for enzymes?
What is an optimum temperature?
Where the enzyme is most active and works best at.
What happens to the enzyme if it becomes too hot?
The bonds holding the enzyme together break. This changes the shape of the active site so the substrate won't fit. The enzyme is said to be denatured.
What happens if the pH is too high or too low?
The pH interferes with the bonds holding the enzyme together. This changes the shape of the active site and denatures the enzyme.
Substrate Concentration also affects the rate of reaction - how?
The higher the substrate concentration, the faster the reaction. This is because it's more likely to meet up and react with a substrate molecule.
What are 5 special features of an enzyme?
1) They are all protein
2) Each enzyme controls one particular reaction
3) They can be reused
4) They are affected by temperature
5) They are affected by pH
How do you know if a word in science is an enzyme?
Ends in -ase
What is the function of the carbohydrase enzyme?
It converts carbohydrates into simple sugars such as Maltose or Dextrins. Amylase is an example of a carbohydrase which breaks down starch.
What is the function of Lipase?
Enzymes called Lipase convert lipids into glycerol and fatty acids.