Enzymes and Genetics Flashcards Preview

Biology 2a & 2b > Enzymes and Genetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Enzymes and Genetics Deck (34)
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1
Q

What is a catalyst?

A

A catalyst is a substance which increases the speed of reaction without being changed or used up in the reaction.

2
Q

State three functions of proteins in living cells, other than acting as a catalyst?

A

G

3
Q

Why does an enzyme-catalysed reaction stop when a mixture is heated about a certain heat?

A

Some of the bonds holding the enzymes together break, this destroys the enzymes special shape and so it won’t work anymore. It is said to be denatured.

4
Q

In which three places in the body is amylase produced?

A

Salivary glands

Small intestine

Pancreas

5
Q

Where in the body is bile produced?

A

Liver

6
Q

Where in the body is bile stored?

A

Gall bladder

7
Q

Where in the body is bile used?

A

Small intestine

8
Q

Why does the stomach produce hydrochloric acid?

A

1) to kill bacteria

2) to give the right ph for the protease enzyme to work

9
Q

What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?

A

Glucose + Oxygen —> Carbon Dioxide + water + energy

10
Q

Give two examples of how an animal used the energy released by aerobic respiration?

A
  • To allow muscles to contract

- In mammals and birds the energy is used to keep their body temperature steady.

11
Q

What is anaerobic respiration?

A

When your body can’t supply enough oxygen to your muscles, they start doing anaerobic (without oxygen) respiration. It’s the incomplete breakdown of glucose.

12
Q

How do you repay an oxygen debt?

A

You have to keep breathing hard to get more oxygen into your blood. Blood flows through your muscles to remove the lactic acid by oxidising it to harmless Carbon dioxide and water.

13
Q

Name two types of enzymes that would be useful in a biological washing powder?

A

Protease

Lipases

14
Q

Advantages of using enzymes in industry’s?

A
  • There specific, so they only catalyse the reaction you want them to.
  • Using lower temperatures and pressures means a lower dose as it saves energy.
  • Enzymes work for a long time, so after the initial cost of busting them you can continually use them.
  • They are biodegradable and therefore cause less environmental pollution
15
Q

Name disadvantages of using enzymes in industry?

A
  • Some people can develop allergies to the enzymes.
  • Enzymes can be denatured by even a small increase in temperature. There are also susceptible to poisons and changes in pH. Conditions must be tightly controlled.
  • Enzymes can be expensive to produce
  • Contamination of the enzyme with other substances can affect the reaction.
16
Q

How does DNA control the activities of a cell?

A

It contains all the instructions to put an organism together and make it work, found in the nucleus

17
Q

How is DNA fingerprinting used in forensic science?

A

DNA is taken from a crime scene is compared with a DNA sample from a suspect. Each person has a unique genetic pattern (other than identical twins) the DNA Samples are then composed.

18
Q

What is mitosis used for in the human body?

A

Mitosis makes new cells for growth and repair. When a body cell divided it needs to make new cells identical to the original cell with the same number of chromosomes. This type of division is known as mitosis.

19
Q

What are the four steps in mitosis?

A

If the cell gets a signal to divide it needs to duplicate its DNA.

The chromosomes then line up at the centre of the cell and livers pull them sparer. The two arms of each chromosomes do to opposite ends of the cells.

Membranes form around each of the sets of chromosomes. These become the nuclei of the two new cells

Lastly the cytoplasm divides.

20
Q

What is meiosis?

A

Making of new cells which only have half the Number of chromosomes. In humans it only happens in the reproductive organs.

21
Q

What is the differentiation in a cell?

A

Is the process by which a cell changes to become specialised for its job.

22
Q

Give three ways that an embryonic stem cells could be used to cure diseases?

A

B

23
Q

Which chromosome in the human body causes male characteristics?

A

H

24
Q

List three important conclusions that Mendel reached following his experiments with pea plants?

A

H

25
Q

Why was Mendel work not understood at the time it was released?

A

F

26
Q

What is an allele?

A

H

27
Q

What is meant by an organism being heterozygous?

A

F

28
Q

Briefly describe the difference beteeen a recessive allele and a dominant one?

A

B

29
Q

If both parents carry recessive allele for cystic fibrosis m, what is the probability of their child being a carrier?

A

H

30
Q

What is polydactyly?

A

H

31
Q

Describe three ways fossils can form?

A

H

32
Q

Give three reasons why some species become extinct?

A

H

33
Q

What is speciation? Explain how geographical isolation can lead to speciation?

A

H

34
Q

Name the four stages of meiosis division?

A

Before the cell starts to divide it duplicated its DNA.

In the first division in meiosis the chromosome pairs line up in the centre of the cell.

The parts are then pulled aparet ski each new cell had only one copy of each chromosome.

In the second division the chromosomes line up again in the centre of the cell. The arms of the chromosomes are pulled apart.
You get four gametes each with only a single set of chromosomes in it.