EP's Flashcards Preview

AS350B2 > EP's > Flashcards

Flashcards in EP's Deck (58):
1

Governor failure

Fuel flow rate down

Same symptoms as eng failure but Ng stabilizes at < 70%

  1. Enter auto
  2. FFC to Emergency Sector: Ng and T4 should rise Ng to 70%
  3. Bump collective to drop Nr to 350
  4. Increase FFC to Nr 380
  5. Trim collective and FFC for level flight

2

Governor failure

Excess fuel flow rate

Ng, T4, Nr, and Torque Increase

*Do not reduce collective!*

Reduce FFC till Nr in center of green

Any collective inputs will need corresponding FFC inputs

3

Landing without governor

Landing approach should be made along a low gradient path, at 65 knots

Nr at the upper limit of the green area (394) with FFC

Final approach - reduce forward speed without touching the FFC

Nr will drop when collective is increased on touchdown

After touchdown, reduce FFC before decreasing collective

4

Surging

Torque and T4 indications

Jerks in yaw axis

Make a change in collective setting

If persists while fuel and engine pressures are good reduce FFC to leave governed area

If still persists, land ASAPo

Shut down engine if a tendency for divergence

5

FIRE

RED Light

Engine fire during start

Fuel shut off lever closed

Rotor brake

Booster Pumps off

Crank for 10 seconds

Battery Switch OFF

Extinguishers - fight fire

6

FIRE

RED LIGHT

Engine fire in flight

Enter auto

Fuel shut off lever closed

Fuel booster pumps OFF

Generator OFF

Master switch OFF if smell burning

7

Smoke in cabin

Identified source

Shut OFF that system

Fire Extinguisher if necessary

Open front ventilator, ventilation ports, and bad weather windows

8

Smoke in cabin

Source unidentified

Heating/demisting system OFF

If smoke does not clear:

Master OFF

All switches OFF (including Generator)

Close cabin ventilators

Master On

Generator ON - check voltage and amps

Switch on circuits till source identified

9

Tail rotor drive failure symptoms

Left yaw: amount depends on A/S and power

10

Tail rotor drive failure action in hover or low speed

Hover auto if IGE

Reduce collective to reduce yaw and gain A/S if OGE

11

Tail rotor drive failure in forward flight

Reduce the power as much as possible and maintain forward speed (weathercock effect)

Select a suitable landing area for a steep approach at a power enabling a reasonably coordinated flight.

On final approach, shut down the engine and make an autorotative landing at the lowest possible speed

12

Tail rotor control failure

Jamming of pedals or loss of pedal effectiveness

Fly 70 KIAS

HYD TEST button for 5 seconds then reset; depressurizing accumulator, centering pedals

Shallow approach to a clear landing area with a slight side slip to the left (nose right!)

Perform a run-on landing; the side slip reduces progressively as power is applied.

Steer with cyclic same as ground track when on the ground!!!

13

No fuel pressure

Confirm by Fuel P light

If no light then gauge is faulty

14

Low Fuel Pressure

Confirm by F FILT light

If no light then gauge is faulty

If light on:

Pressure is negative in fuel lines

Avoid flying at high altitude especially at high OAT in order to prevent vapor lock. (THM 10.3)

15

Low Engine Oil Pressure

Gauge Pointer in Red Arc for Ng above 85%

1. Test Warning Lights

ENG P light OFF (Failed light):

a. TQ very low = shut down engine/autorotation

b. TQ good = land as soon as possible.

ENG P light ON:

a. TQ low =  Land ASAPo

b. TQ good = Land ASAPr and monitor ENG P light.

16

Engine Oil Temperature Higher than Maximum Specified

In hover

  1. Land if possible
  2. Shut down engine
  3. Check cooler fan

If cannot land

  1. Fly 80 KIAS or higher & reduce power
  • Temp should drop, if not Land ASAPo

17

Ng indicator failure

Do not exceed max torque and keep T4 as below

OAT <15°C = T4 730°C

OAT >15°C = T4 750°C

18

Max Torque

A/S < 40 Knots = 100% or 107% for 10 seconds

A/S >40 Knots = 94%

More torque allowed at lower speeds for servo transparency; not reaching maneuvering limitations

19

Torque Meter Failure

Check ENG P light and engine oil pressure gauge

Check gauge fuse

Ng Limits chart (Mostly 98%)

A image thumb
20

T4 indicator failure

Comply with Ng limitations

Maximum transient rating (less than 5 seconds)

• Ng = 107.5% - ∆Ng = +6

Maximum takeoff rating (5 minutes)

• without P2 air bleed - ∆Ng = 0

• with P2 air bleed - ∆Ng = –0.6

Maximum continuous rating

• Ng = 98% - ∆Ng = –3.5

21

Abnormal Nr/Nf Readings

Below Green Arc

If Nr and Nf values agree:

  • 1. Excessive power demand
    • a. Reduce Collective 

Indicator should rise to governed value.

  • 2. Governor failure—Refer to Governor Failures

22

Rotor RPM Indicator Failure

Complete loss of Nr indication:

1. Maintain above 10% engine torque

Nr reading is then given by the Nf pointer.

2. Land as soon as possible.

23

Different Nr/Nf readings

1. Nr > Nf on the ground or Nf > Nr in flight

  • Nr reading is incorrect
  • Refer to Rotor RPM Indicator Failure
  • 10%+ Torque, Use Nf, Land ASAPo
  • Except in autorotation (near zero torque).

2. Nf reading exceeds Nr

On the ground during the starting sequence:

a.Reduce FFC: Check for possible freewheel slippage

24

Nf Indicator Failure

1. Check Nr reading

Nr reading should remain within governed range when collective pitch is slowly modified with engine torque above 0%.

2. Continue flight.

25

Yaw Servo control Slide-valve Seizure

In Hover

  • No yaw movement = land normally.
  • Yaw movement = HYD OFF

In Cruising Flight

1. Reduce A/S, enter into a side-slip, if necessary.

2. HYD OFF

26

Main Servo control Slide-valve Seizure

1. Collective HYD switch OFF

2. A/S to 60 KIAS

3. Proceed as in HYD Light

Load feedback felt immediately; heavy if high speed

a. Collective pitch—44 lb pitch increase load

b. Cyclic—15 to 26 lb left-hand load

c. Cyclic—4 to 9 lb forward load

d. Yaw pedals—Practically no load in cruising flight

27

Bleed Valve Flag Off

Avoid sudden power variations.

If the flag does not disappear above the specified Ng value, the maximum available engine power is reduced, especially in cold weather.

If the flag does not appear below the specified Ng value, engine surging may result.

A image thumb
28

Bleed Valve Flag

Flag = Valve open

Normally open when engine is shut down, during start, and low power.

During startup and post-startup acceleration, the airflow is too high and must be reduced to prevent disturbances such as engine stall or surging.

This "airflow reduction" function is automatically performed by a bleed value that compares the pressures P2 (filter outlet pressure) and P0 and closes when NG = 93% approx.

The Ng values at which the bleed valve opens and closes depend on the temperature and altitude specified in the section 4.1 of the RFM.

29

AURAL WARNING

• Nr between 250 and 360 rpm (continuous)

• Nr above 410 rpm (intermittent)

• Hydraulic pressure drop, below 30 bar (continuous)

• Normal rotor speed when testing the caution panel

It is operative only if the HORN button is pushed in. When this pushbutton is out at nominal rotor speed, the HORN light on the warning–caution–advisory panel is ON.

30

HYD failure causes

  1. Failure of the hydraulic pump or belt
  2. Filter becoming clogged
  3. Break in a hydraulic line

31

HYD Light

Loss of hydraulics

IGE hover:

• Land normally

• Lock Collective

• Shutdown

In flight:

1. Smoothly establish 40 to 60 KIAS

2.Collective HYD switch OFF

LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE

Control loads on collective increase and on forward and left cyclic

NOTE: Speed may be increased as necessary but controls loads will increase with speed.

– Approach and Landing:

• Shallow apprch to clear, flat area, nose into wind

• Perform run-on landing around 10 knots

– After landing: Lock collective and shutdown

Hydraulic pressure <30 bar

HYD light and the aural alarm, caused by leakage, a broken pump drive belt, etc.

Keep aircraft to a level attitude.

Avoid abrupt maneuvers.

CAUTION: DO NOT PUSH HYD TEST BUTTON AS THIS WILL DEPRESSURIZE THE YAW LOAD COMPENSATOR, RESULTING IN HEAVY PEDALS CONTROL LOADS.

NOTE 1: Pressure in accumulators allows enough time to secure flight and to establish safe speed.

NOTE 2: Do not silence the HORN by using the HORN switch.

HORN will be off when HYD cut-off switch is OFF.

 

32

HYD TEST

Button

1. Pressed only in flight if suspected tail rotor control problem and need TR somewhat near neutral

2. After Start Test:

  1. Press Button - HYD/HORN lights ON
  2. Cyclic movemernts (fore/aft & lateral) - No increase in load
  3. Check pedals - should become stiff
  4. Press Button again - HYD/HORN lights OFF

Any control feedback on cyclic - accumulators need checking

Tests MR & TR accumulators' pressurization

Tests for an asymmetric problem if HYD failure

Opens test and TR servo solenoids, allowing accumulators to depressurize

On the ground with the rotor spinning, pressing "HYD TEST" button:

Pilot should be able to move the cyclic stick without any effort until a resistance is subsequently felt, indicating the accumulators have discharged. 

Pedals become stiff. HYD TEST opens solenoids 13 & 14. HYD cutoff switch only opens solenoid 13. (8.14 & 8.15)

With rotor stopped alows pilot to operate or  center the yaw pedals on the ground.

33

HYD TEST

Pushing button in flight

DONT DO IT!

Unless a suspected tail rotor control failure

34

HYD cut-off swtich

After start check

  1. Secure collective
  2. Switch OFF - HYD light ON, Load increases
    • Pedals are partially boosted
  3.  

After start test: tests system can be disabled if HYD failure or slide valve seizure; proper operation of isolation solenoids, and yaw accumulator check

Used in case of hydraulic failure or seizure of a servo actuator distributor to route the servo pressure inlet line back into the reservoir

This eliminates back pressure in manual control and reduces the control loads.

With the rotor spinning, turning off HYD switch opens solenoids.

The pressure then drops, the "HYD" light illuminates and the control operating loads are instantaneously felt, except on the yaw pedals where they remain low due to the action of the accumulator.

35

HYD cut-off switch back on after test

After HYD switch back ON

Horn 

Horn > 3 seconds = accumulators undercharged.

36

MGB P

RED LIGHT

  1. Reduce power
  2. Land ASAPo

NOTE: The MGB has successfully passed a bench test consisting in running the gearbox for 45 min. with zero oil pressure at the power cor-responding to minimum power in level flight (at 55 kt).

37

MGB T

RED LIGHT

Test MGB P light

  • No light = proceed as for MGB P (Reduce Power & Land ASAPo)
  • Light = land and check the MGB oil level.
    • If oil level is normal, fly to nearest base.

38

BAT T

RED LIGHT

Isolate battery (push button OFF) and land as soon as possible.

39

ENG CHIP

Amber light

Land as soon as possible

It is prohibited to take off again as long as the checks scheduled in TURBOMECA Maintenance Manual have not been performed.

Apply the fire in flight procedure specifed in the RFM if the following occurs:

• Smoke in assumed engine area

• Smell of burning in cabin

• Hunting of engine oil pressure indicator pointer

40

ENG P

RED LIGHT

Engine Oil Pressure

  1. Reduce power.
  2. Check engine oil pressure indicator:

• If pressure is low or zero read torquemeter:

° If very low shut down engine; Land  or Autorotation???

° If correct land immediately

• If pressure and torquemeter readings are correct, land as soon as possible

41

GEN 

Light

– DC power supply failure or overvoltage detected 

– Check: 

  • D.C. voltage.
  • GEN push button
    • Attempt reset

– If unsuccessful:

  • Shed non-essential circuits:
  • Continue flight, according to circumstances, keeping a close check on voltage (22 volts minimum).

–Land as soon as practicable.

See altitude limits after booster pumps have been switched off.

42

BAT

Amber Light

Battery isolated from the DC network; no longer charging

– Check the pushbutton (ON)

– Keep a watch on voltage (22 Minimum)

– Continue flight, according to circumstances

43

HORN

Amber light

Horn not set

– Set the horn by actuating the push-button situated on the control pedestal panel.

44

FUEL

Amber Light

Fuel quantity less than 60 liters (15.8 US gal)

– Avoid large attitude changes.

NOTE: Remaining usable fuel allows approximately 18 minutes level flight at maximum continuous power.

45

FUEL P

Amber light

Check fuel pressure:

  • Pressure normal = only one pump is faulty:
    • Flight may be continued.
  • Pressure is zero = both pumps faulty:
    • Flight may be continued lower than 5,000 ft (1,524 m).

Fuel pressure lower than 0.2 bar on either or both pumps

46

F FILTER

Amber light

  1. Reduce engine power

• Light goes out = continue flight at reduced power.

• Light stays on = land as soon as possible.

47

PITOT

Amber light

Pitot heat not energized

– Check the pushbutton (ON).

– Monitor airspeed indicator.

48

DOORS

Amber light

One or both baggage hold side doors unlocked

– Reduce airspeed 120 KIAS max

– Check visually that doors are closed.

– If one or both doors are open, or if checking is impossible:

Land if possible, or continue flight at reduced speed

– Maintain low sink rate and shallow approach.

49

CHIP TGB

Amber light

Continue flight avoiding prolonged hovering

Land ASAPo???

50

CHIP MGB

Amber light

Reduce engine power.

Monitor MGB P and MGB T lights.

Should either or both lights illuminate refer to illumination of relevant light(s), in LIGHT column.

51

Land as soon as possible

Land at the nearest site at which a safe landing can be made.

52

Land as soon as practicable

Extended flight is not recommended; the landing site and duration of the flight are at the discretion of the pilot.

53

Autorotation after engine failure

Enter auto and pick LZ

Stabilize RPM 65 KIAS

FFC to shutdown position

Relight possible?

If not: Close fuel shut off lever

Switch OFF:

Booster pumps

Generator

Master (if smell burning)

Head into wind on final

Flare approx 65' 20-25': apply collective to reduce descent

Resume level attitude before touchdown

Lower collective after touchdown

54

In flight Flameout indications

• Jerk in the yaw axis (only in high-power flight)

• Drop in rotor speed (Horn below 360 rpm)

• Torque at zero

• Ng falling off to zero

• Generator (GEN) warning light illuminates

• Engine oil pressure (ENG P) warning light illuminates

55

Relighting Engine in Flight

<13,000 ft 

1. Fuel booster pumps ON

2. Generator ON

3. Wait until Ng < 30%

4. Carry out normal starting procedure.

To avoid any jerk on resynchronization, accelerate the engine progressively when free turbine speed approaches rotor speed.

56

Flight time on battery only

Day = 50 min

Night = 20 min

57

High T4 abort

  1. Check battery voltage >15 Volts
    1. If ok, CRANK 15 seconds
    2. Reattempt Start
    3. Increase FFC gradually; do not let Ng to drop

58

Aborting Start

  1. Close FFC
  2. Fuel pumps OFF
  3. GEN OFF
  4. CRANK engine (10 seconds)