Flashcards in Epidemiology Deck (48)
a public health discipline basic science which studies the distribution and determinants of disease in populations to control disease and illness and promote health
What are the 3 primary groupings in epidemiology?
disease; exposure; population
Who is the father of epidemiology?
In regards to distribution of disease, what is the frequency of disease occurrence?
not only counts but also counts in relation to size of the population
What 3 aspects do patterns of disease occurrence encompass?
person; place; time
In regards to distribution of disease, Who/where/when = ____ epidemiology
In regards to determinants of disease, why/how = ____ epidemiology
New occurrences of an outcome or disease is called what?
Existing occurrences of an outcome/disease is called what?
note: includes old and new cases, collectively
(new cases of the outcome)/(# persons at risk of the outcome) = ?
note: always subtract out those who already have the disease
What is the equation for incidence rate?
#new cases/ person time (total net time people were at risk)
Occurrence of disease clearly in excess of normal expectancy is called what?
an epidemic limited to a localized increase in the occurrence of disease is called what?
the constant presence of a disease within a given area or population in excess of normal levels in other areas
an epidemic occurring over a very wide area involving a large number of people
Explain difference between quantitative and qualitative research design
quantitative = numbers
qualitative = words
Explain difference between interventional and observational methodology
interventional = forced allocation to study groups
observational = no forced allocation to study groups
Explain the different phases of an interventional study
pre-clinical: bench research
phase 1: assess safety, small sample (20-80)
phase 2: assess safety and efficacy in diseased population, larger sample (100-300)
phase 3: primary focus is to assess efficacy, even larger sample (1000-3000)
Phase 4: post-marketing, long-term effects in large population
Define a single-blind interventional study
study subjects are not informed which intervention they are receiving but clinicians know
Define a double-blind interventional study
neither investigator nor study subjects are informed which intervention each subject is receiving
Define an open label interventional study
everyone knows everything
Inert treatments made to look identical in all ascents to the active treatment is called?
What is a double-dummy treatment?
more than 1 placebo used
What is the placebo-effect?
improvement in condition, by power of suggestion & due to the care being provided
What is the hawthorne-effect?
desire of study subject to "please" investigators by reporting positive results, regardless of treatment allocation
Group allocation in a cohort study is based on what?
Group allocation in a case-control study is based on what?
What does a cross-sectional study examine?
the relationship between disease AND exposure
What is absolute risk reduction (ARR)?
subtract risks of two groups