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Flashcards in Epidemiology Deck (48)
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1

Define epidemiology

a public health discipline basic science which studies the distribution and determinants of disease in populations to control disease and illness and promote health

2

What are the 3 primary groupings in epidemiology?

disease; exposure; population

3

Who is the father of epidemiology?

John Snow

4

In regards to distribution of disease, what is the frequency of disease occurrence?

not only counts but also counts in relation to size of the population

5

What 3 aspects do patterns of disease occurrence encompass?

person; place; time

6

In regards to distribution of disease, Who/where/when = ____ epidemiology

descriptive

7

In regards to determinants of disease, why/how = ____ epidemiology

analytic

8

New occurrences of an outcome or disease is called what?

incidence

9

Existing occurrences of an outcome/disease is called what?

prevalence

note: includes old and new cases, collectively

10

(new cases of the outcome)/(# persons at risk of the outcome) = ?

incidence

note: always subtract out those who already have the disease

11

What is the equation for incidence rate?

#new cases/ person time (total net time people were at risk)

12

Occurrence of disease clearly in excess of normal expectancy is called what?

epidemic

13

an epidemic limited to a localized increase in the occurrence of disease is called what?

outbreak

14

define endemic

the constant presence of a disease within a given area or population in excess of normal levels in other areas

15

define pandemic

an epidemic occurring over a very wide area involving a large number of people

16

Explain difference between quantitative and qualitative research design

quantitative = numbers
qualitative = words

17

Explain difference between interventional and observational methodology

interventional = forced allocation to study groups

observational = no forced allocation to study groups

18

Explain the different phases of an interventional study

pre-clinical: bench research

phase 1: assess safety, small sample (20-80)

phase 2: assess safety and efficacy in diseased population, larger sample (100-300)

phase 3: primary focus is to assess efficacy, even larger sample (1000-3000)

Phase 4: post-marketing, long-term effects in large population

19

Define a single-blind interventional study

study subjects are not informed which intervention they are receiving but clinicians know

20

Define a double-blind interventional study

neither investigator nor study subjects are informed which intervention each subject is receiving

21

Define an open label interventional study

everyone knows everything

22

Inert treatments made to look identical in all ascents to the active treatment is called?

placebo

23

What is a double-dummy treatment?

more than 1 placebo used

24

What is the placebo-effect?

improvement in condition, by power of suggestion & due to the care being provided

25

What is the hawthorne-effect?

desire of study subject to "please" investigators by reporting positive results, regardless of treatment allocation

26

Group allocation in a cohort study is based on what?

exposure

27

Group allocation in a case-control study is based on what?

disease

28

What does a cross-sectional study examine?

the relationship between disease AND exposure

29

What is absolute risk reduction (ARR)?

subtract risks of two groups

30

What is relative risk reduction (RRR)?

ARR / Risk of unexposed