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Flashcards in Epidemiology Deck (29)
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1

What is a communicable disease

Is transmissible or infectious disease able to go from one host to another

2

What is a noncommunicable disease

Unable to get another host however you can get it from yourself (own normal flora infection) or from the environment

3

What factors are considered when seeing if a disease is reportable

Newer disease, is chronic or debilitating

4

Is that in developed regions of the world cause more by communicable or noncommunicable diseases

Noncommunicable diseases (ex: cancer and heart disease)

5

Is death in under developed regions of the world caused by communicable or noncommunicable diseases

Communicable (ex. HIV, TB, malaria)

6

What is the number one cause of death worldwide

Pneumonia and disease caused by diarrhea

7

Define morbidity rate

Illness rate during A specific time frame

8

Within morbidity there is incidents and prevalence, define both

Incidence- number of new cases (tells us how much it's spreading)
Prevalence- total of all cases(tell us how serious it is)

9

Define mortality rate

The death rate specific time frame

10

Define epidemiology

Study of when and where disease occur and how they are transmitted

11

Define endemic

The expected low level of disease

12

Define epidemic

Greater than expected levels of disease

13

Define pandemic

Worldwide epidemic

14

What is sporadic

Occasional diseases. Ex Ebola

15

What is the link in the chain of infection

Reservoir of infection--> portal of exit--> transmission--> Port of entry--> susceptible host

16

What are some type of reservoirs

Humans, animals, environment

17

What are some portals of the exit

Coughing, sneezing, bleeding

18

What are the types of transmission

Vertical and horizontal

19

What is vertical transmission

Mother to baby

20

What is horizontal transmission

Person to person

21

Types of direct contact

Touching, kissing, sex

22

Types of indirect contact

Fomites and droplets

23

What are the vehicles of transmission

Food, water, air

24

What are vectors of transmission

Mechanical (carrier on the outside) and biological (must grow on the inside)

25

What is the most common portal of entry

Respiratory tract

26

Defined parenteral group

Into tissues beneath the skin or mucous membranes (examples. Catheters, coats, surgical incisions)

27

What are the common factors that make a host susceptible to infection

Immunity, general health behaviors, age, gender, genetics

28

In the case of typhoid Mary what's one thing she could've done to decrease transmission

Handwashing

29

What are four things we've done to reduce disease

Sanitation, reservoir/vector control, vaccination, and Antibiotic therapy