Epidemiology and Infection Control Flashcards Preview

Microbiology & Infectious Disease > Epidemiology and Infection Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Epidemiology and Infection Control Deck (13):
1

What are the various patterns of infection?(5)

Epidemic, Pandemic, Endemic, Sporadic and outbreak!

2

Define epidemic!

- usually high number of infected individuals in a population at one time. Can range from the small scale up to nationwide
ex: Ebola in West Africa

3

Define pandemic!

- a world-wide epidemic

4

Define endemic!

- constantly present, usually affecting a small proportion of the population
ex: MRSA is endemic to many hospitals

5

Define sporadic!

- individual cases in geographically separate areas
- incidents are not related

6

Define outbreak!

- a number of cases in a short period of time in the same area
- assumed to be related

7

What are the various carriers?

aute carrier and chronic carrier

8

What is a carrier?

- infected individual showing no obvious sign of disease

9

Explain acute carrier!

- before symptoms appear
- carrier state of short duration

10

Explain chronic carrier!

- long term
- may have recovered from the disease but still harbour pathogens
- may be asymptomatic
ex: Hepatitis, TB, typhoid fever

11

Types of immunization?

- passive (antibody preparation)
- active (vaccines)

12

Explain active immunization!

- modified/purified pathogens or their product
- stimulate host to produce own specific immunity
-a few weeks lag before protection, but long lasting

13

Explain passive immunization!

- preformed antibodies created in another host
- protect individual exposed to disease
- work immediately but short term protection