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Flashcards in Epidemiology, Location Deck (44)
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1

Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus)
Epidemiology

Most commonly in
newborns and infants
up to 2 years of age and
people >65 yrs old

2

Corynebacterium diphtheria
Epidemiology

Rare in U.S.
endemic in developing
countries w/ low
vaccination coverage

3

Acinetobacter baumannii
Epidemiology

Southeast Asia&tropical
Austrailia

pts w/ COPD, renal
failure, DM, lots of
tobacco/alcohol

4

Bordetella pertussis
Epidemiology

Not as common in developed
countries;
Common in developing
countries w/ no vaccine

outbreak cases in
adolescents w/ waned
immune system

5

Francisella tularensis
Epidemiology

Pneumonic tularemia:
more common in elderly
and in people w/ typhoidal
tularemia

Several routes:
Insect bites (esp. ulceroglandular)
Exposure to sick/dead animals
Rubbing eyes
Airborne (soil-->pneumonic)
Contaminated food/H2O
(undercooked food-->
oropharyngeal tularemia)

6

Yersina pestis
Epidemiology

Rare; regionally restricted

Only contracted where silvatic
(rural, naturalzoonotic) plague exists
(entirely west of Mississippi and
confined to narrow range in West

7

Brucella spp.
Epidemiology

Rare

recent immigrants from
mediterranean area, Mexico, or
those recently visiting these
areas & consuming raw cheese

8

Coxiella burnetii
Epidemiology

Rare

9

Chlamydia
Epidemiology

3-4 million cases of genital tract
infections/yr in U.S.

10

Legionella pneumophilia
Epidemiology

Esp. summer and fall
8000-18,000/year in US but many
not diagnosed/reported

11

Mycoplasma
M. pneumoniae
Epidemiology

most common in first two decades
of life
(common cause of CA pneumonia in
otherwise healthy pts <5yo

**ages 5-20yo**

disease more severe in males
(though incidence same)
temperate climates
large outbreaks in summer&fall
(causes up to 50% of all pneumonias
in the summer)
epidemics every 4-8 yrs
(esp. in closed populations, i.e.
prisons/miitary)

12

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Epidemiology

Foreign-born individuals

13

Actinomyces israelii Complex
Epidemiology

Rare in U.S.
May occur at any age, but esp.
30-60year olds
Usually men

14

Histoplasmosis
(Histoplasma capsulatum)
Epidemiology

endemic to Ohio and Mississippi
River valleys
(including Memphis)

up to 80% of residents have been
infected, w/ fewer than 5% symptom

endemic to central America

15

Blastomycosis
(Blastomyces dermatitidis)
Epidemiology

Endemic in Mid-South, SE and Mid-
western parts of US

Systemic blastomycosis:
middle-aged/older men

16

Coccidioidomycosis
(Coccidioides immitis)
Epidemiology

San Joaquin Valley of California

Disseminated infections more
common in:
men
dark-skinned races
AIDS/immunocompromised pts

endemic to semi-arid climates of
Southwestern US
90% seropositive rate in these areas

17

Mucormycosis
(Zygomycetes fungi:
Absidia, Rhizopus, Mucor Species)
Epidemiology

Very rare
Mostly seen in acidosis pts
(i.e. diabetes mellitus) or pts on
corticosteroid treatment

18

Pneumocystosis
(Pneumocystic jerovici (carinii))
Epidemiology

Immunocompromised pts

Most people infected by age 4
(adult infections due to new infection
via different serotype)

19

Influenza viruses
Epidemiology

Types A and B cause seasonal
epidemics almost every yr and
pandemic when new&different strain

Winter/ early spring months

Pandemic strains occasionally

Zoonotic infections

20

Rhinoviruses
Epidemiology

Year round, but especially in Fall and
Spring

21

Adenovirus
Epidemiology

Esp. small children

GI tract infections in young children
(second only to rotavirus in incidence)

Endemic infections in late winter/
early spring (i.e. serotypes 1, 2, 3, 5…
esp in children)

New Military Recruits (ARD)

22

Coronaviruses
Epidemiology

common
worldwide

seasonal
(especially children in the winter)

23

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Epidemiology

Infants and young children (esp. 2-8mo)
Immunocompromised pts

Strong seasonality w/ RSV,
THE MOST PREDICTABLE EPIDEMIC
DISEASE IN US
…emerges w/in community, increases
in incidence, then dies down (not as
widespread as influenza)

Peak season in Memphis is mid-fall
through early spring

In adults also common

24

Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV)
Epidemiology

older children & adults --> ARDS
Children--> lower respiratory

Infants and young children!
immunocompromised pts

Most common in late winter & early
spring in US

25

Human Parainfluenza viruses 1-4 (hPIVs)
Epidemiology

Infants and young children
immunocompromised pts

hPIV1…largest most defined outbreak
(sharp biennial rise in croup cases in
autumn of odd-numbered yrs)
hPIV2…erratic outbreaks, usually
follow hPIV1 outbreaks
hPIV3…occur yearly, mainlly in spring
and summer
hPIV4…??

26

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)
Epidemiology

Anyone, even healthy people

Sporadic cases
Especially rural areas

27

Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus)
Location

Commensal microbiota
(asymptomatically colonizing 60%
children and 30% adults)

human nasal cavity (esp. mid-
winter) as early as 6 mo of age

Higher colonization in
Native Americans, Aboriginal,
disadvantaged members of society

28

Acinetobacter baumannii
Location

Commonly isolated from hospital
environment (irrigating/IV solns)
water organism
sputum/respiratory secretions,
wounds, urine

29

Francisella tularensis
Location

esp. rural areas

can live for wks in soil, H2O, dead
animals

Worldwide

30

Yersina pestis
Location

New Mexico and adjoining States
some Rocky Mountain States to
the north