Episode 2: Some of the Things that Molecules Do Flashcards
How did humans live 30,000 years ago?
As hunters an gatherers
What was the sky used as?
A storybook, a calendar and an instruction manual
How long ago did humans begin the domestication of wolves?
15,000 years ago
What is artificial selection also referred to as?
Breeding, Survival of the friendliest
Other than dogs what other forms of life have humans used artificial selection to improve their lives?
Birds, Goldfish, Goats, Cats, Farm animals, Wheat, Rice, Tomatoes, Mustard, Corn, Coral and many forms of flowers
What does survival of the fittest refer to?
Natural Selection, the success of mutations due to advantages in nature
What is a kinesin?
A kinesin is a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells.
Kinesins move along microtubule (MT) filaments, and are powered by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (thus kinesins are ATPases). The active movement of kinesins supports several cellular functions including mitosis, meiosis and transport of cellular cargo, such as in axonal transport.
Where is our DNA stored?
In the nuclei of our cells
Describe a DNA molecule
DNA molecules are shaped like twisted ladders. Each rung of the ladder is a letter. There are 4 different letter types. The different combinations of these letters define the composition of biological beings. There are as many atoms in a DNA molecule as there are stars in our universe
Roughly how many species of beetle have been discovered on earth so far?
1/2 a million types of beetles
4 billion years ago forms of life had no what?
What is it called when a DNA molecule isn’t copied perfectly?
How were the first eyes formed?
A mutation in microscopic bacteria developed a protein that absorbed sen light. Another mutation caused the darker bacteria to become sensitive to light and flee in to darker waters. This was an advantage as it protected them from harmful UltraViolet rays that damage bacteria. These bacteria survived in greater numbers. Over time those light sensitive proteins became concentrated in a pigment spot on the now more advanced one cell organism. Multi-cell organisms such as flat worms dimples around pigment spot allowing organisms to distinguish light from shadow and crudely make out objects in its vicinity. Dimples then deepened and evolved into a socket with a small opening. The opening contracted to a pin hole covered by a transparent membrane which sharpened focus. Next the lense formed and the hole enlarged to let in more light allowing organisms to see in HD
Why has our eyesight never been as good as our ancestors?
Our eyes evolved from eyes designed to see under water. As light bends through different mediums our eyes were required to evolve to adjust to these distortions.
What were the great catastrophes and how many were there?
The 5 great catastrophes were natural disasters that caused mass extinctions.