Equine Sarcoid Flashcards Preview

Large Animal Surgery > Equine Sarcoid > Flashcards

Flashcards in Equine Sarcoid Deck (44):
1

What does the term sarcoid mean?

Sarcoma-like

2

What is the most common tumor in the horse?

Sarcoids

3

What percentage of all equine tumors do sarcoids represent?

20%

4

What percentage of all skin tumors do sarcoids represent?

90%

5

What is a sarcoid?

A benign, non-metastatic growth that is both invasive and recurrent.

6

What is the cause of sarcoids?

A papova virus

7

What age do we typically see sarcoids?

3-6 years

8

Where do we typically see sarcoid?

Anywhere on the body, but often on the head and neck, ventrum and limbs.

9

What percentage of sarcoids do we see on the limbs?

45%

10

What percentage of sarcoids do we see on the head and neck?

32%

11

What percentage of sarcoids do we see on the ventrum?

20%

12

Regarding sarcoids on the limbs, which limb is most affected?

Hindlimbs > forelimbs

13

Regarding sarcoids on the limbs, what location on the limb is most affected?

Above tarsus/carpus > below

14

Regarding sarcoids on the head and neck, what are seems most affected?

Periorbital > ears and rest of head

15

What are the 4 forms of sarcoids?

Verrucous
Fibroblastic
Mixed
Occult

16

Describe the verrucous sarcoid.

Warty, dry and scaly.

NOTE: Tends to transform into the fibroblastic form if traumatized.

17

Describe the fibroblastic sarcoid.

Proudflesh-like. Epithelium is often ulcerated.

18

Describe mixed sarcoids.

A combo of both verrucous and fibroblastic.

19

Describe occult sarcoids.

Inflammatory, slightly raised nodules on the skin.

20

How to we confirm sarcoids?

Biopsy and histopathology

21

How do we often treat sarcoids?

Note in the record, show the owner, biopsy and histopath to confirm and then treat with benign neglect.

22

How can you differentiate fibroblastic sarcoids from proudflesh?

Biopsy and histopathology.

23

What are 5 differentials for sarcoids?

Exuberant granulation tissue
Fibrosarcoma
Fibroma
SCC
Habronemiasis (If you tx with Ivomec, will regress)

24

Why do you need to send possible sarcoid samples to a veterianry pathologist?

Because there is NO similarity between human and equine sarcoids

25

What will you see on a histopath slide of a sarcoid?

Dermal spindle cells

26

What sarcoids would you refer out?

Any that are refractory or fast growing.

27

There are 7 different therapies for sarcoids, list 4 of them.

Surgical excision
Cryosurgery
Hyperthermia
Laser therapy
Immunotherapy
Brachytherapy
Chemotherapy

28

What 4 things help you choose which therapy you use for sarcoids?

Size
Number
Anatomical location
Histologic type

29

What is the prognosis with surgical excision of sarcoids?

Guarded

30

What is a downside to surgical excision of sarcoids?

Recurs within 3 years, most regrow within 6 months.

31

What is a big thing to remember when using surgical excision to treat sarcoids?

Careless handling of instruments can contaminate and re-seed.

32

What are 3 different cryogens that can be used in cryosurgery?

Liquid nitrogen
Nitrous oxide
Freon

33

When using cryosurgery to treat sarcoids, what must you remember to do around the area?

Protect it with an insulator.

34

Describe the cryosurgery procedure for treating sarcoids.

Pre-treat with NSAIDs. Sedate. Freeze to a temp of -20 or -30C. Repeat at least once. Provide tetanus prophylaxis.

35

What is the average healing time post-cryosurgery?

2.4 months

36

What are 4 concerns with cryosurgery for treating sarcoids?

Protection of surrounding tissue
Deeper structures (eg. tendons)
Inadequate necrosis leading to recurrence
Delayed healing

37

What is hyperthermia treatment for treating sarcoids?

Application of heat of 50C for 60 seconds per site.

38

When using hyperthermia for sarcoids, how often do you treat?

Three treatments, two weeks apart.

39

If using chemotherapy for treatment of sarcoids, what is the best way of doing this?

Using a small concentration locally to save money, have greater effect and lessen the risk of kidney damage.

40

What was the treatment regimine in lecture for using Cisplatin to treat sarcoids?

4 intratumoral injections at 2 week intervals.

41

What do we need to be careful about when treating sarcoids with Cisplatin?

Do it yourself and wear proper protection because it can cause skin reactions in humans.

42

What is Xxterra and what is it used to treat?

It's a caustic agent to treat sarcoids. It changes the antigenicity of the sarcoid so the body recognizes it as foreign and produces antibodies.

43

How do you use Xxterra to treat sarcoids?

Apply to sarcoid and place a bandage over it for 4 days.

44

What might you see at the treated area when using Xxterra to treat sarcoids?

Area might ooze purulent material and become malodorous.