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DC A Level PE - Exercise Physiology > Ergogenic Aids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ergogenic Aids Deck (24)
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What are nitrates?
What type of athletes use them?

Compounds consumed by eating vegetables (beetroot, root veg) to dilate blood vessels
Used by endurance athletes


Pros and cons of nitrates (2 if possible)

Pros: Reduce blood pressure
Delay fatigue

Cons: Can cause headaches and dizziness
Carcinogenic side effects


What is bicarbonate?
What athletes use them?

Baking soda - an alkaline that neutralises acids in the blood stream and acts as a buffer

Used by endurance athletes


Pros and cons of bicarbonate (2 if possible)

Pros: Reduces lactic acid effects (buffering)
Important for digestion

Cons: Can cause nausea
Has a bad taste


What is caffeine and what does it do?

Legal stimulant that heightens the CNS
Increase the breakdown of fat and aerobic energy production


2 Pros and Cons of caffeine

Pros: Increases alertness
Increases endurance

Cons: Diuretic (makes you wee) = Dehydration
Can cause insomnia


What is creatine supplementation?
What type of athletes use it?

Amino acid found in meat that increase PC stores
Used by high intensity athletes


2 pros and cons for creatine supplementation

Pros: Helps muscle growth
Leads to increased aggression (+ve)

Cons: Unexplained side effects
Increased aggression (-ve)


What is hydration?
What type of athletes use it?

Drinking to maintain bodily fluid levels (electrolytes)

All athletes use it


2 Pros and cons of hydration

Pros: Enhance performance
Increases efficiency at muscle cells
Increased skill level and cognitive function

Cons: No cons


What is glycogen loading?
What type of athletes use it?

Manipulating carbs intake a week before an event
Used by endurance athletes (long distance runners)


2 Pros and Cons of glycogen loading

Pros: Increase time to reach exhaustion by up to 30%
Delays fatigue

Cons: Poor recovery rate
Increased injury risk


What are Cooling Aids?
What type of athletes use them?

Ice vests/packs/baths used to reduce core body temp, treat injury and speed up recovery

All athletes use them but mostly endurance athletes


2 Pros and Cons for Cooling Aids

Pros: Decrease fatigue
Delay DOMS (vasoconstriction)
Decrease swelling

Cons: Can cause ice burns
Leads to chest condition complications


What are anabolic steroids?
What type of athletes use them?

Synthetic hormones that resemble testosterone
Used by maximal performers


2 Pros and Cons for Anabolic Steroids

Pros: Increase recovery speed
Allow you to train longer and harder

Cons: Can lead to reduction in sperm count
Can cause heart failure


What is erythropoietin?
Who uses it?

A hormone that can be synthetically copied to increase haemoglobin count

Used by endurance athletes


2 Pros and Cons for Erythropoietin

Pros: Increase oxygen transport
Greater resistance to fatigue

Cons: Increase in blood viscosity (blood clots)
Decrease in cardiac output


What is the Human Growth Hormone
Who uses it?

Hormone to increase protein synthesis

Used by maximal performers


2 Pros and Cons for Human Growth Hormone

Pros: Increase muscle mass
Increased fat metabolism

Cons: Enlargement of vital organs
Can cause heart failure


What is blood doping and who uses it?

Blood is removed and frozen, the body then replenishes the list blood and is injected with the old blood to increase RBC

Aerobic performers use it


2 Pros and Cons of Blood Doping

Pros: Increase oxygen transport
Allows you to train harder and longer

Cons: Decreased cardiac output
Heart failure risk


What is Intermittent Hypoxic Training?
What type of athletes use it?

Training with an inadequate oxygen supply that leads to muscle adaptations

Endurance athletes use it


2 Pros and Cons for IHT

Pros: Increased OBLA
Increased mitochondrial intensity

Cons: Can decrease immune function
Can lead to dehydration