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0

What is the difference between bias and confounding?

Bias is unrepresentative sample or systematic mistake - a flawed study.

Confounding is a characteristic of the population.

1

What is the difference between a meta analysis and a systematic review?

Systematic review: an overview of primary studies that are explicit and reproducible
Meta analysis: a quantity synthesis of two or more studies that address the same hypothesis in the same way.

2

Random effects modelling can account for heterogeneity but how can we explain it?

Sub group analysis
Grouped by Study characteristics or participant profile (which is better but harder to get data)

3

How is variable quality assessed and accounted for?

Define criteria the study must meet.
Give each study a score and encorporate it into weighting, do sub group analysis of high quality vs low quality, use meta-regression analysis.

4

Secondary structure

Local spartial arrangement of polypeptide backbone

5

Nucleoside?

Base and sugar

7

MRNA modifications to stabilise it

5' 5' capping
Polyadenylation- endonucleases cleaves and polyA polymerase extends 200
Splicing - exo and endo nucleases.

8

Peptide bond formation enzyme in translation?

Peptidyl transferase

9

Non stop secretion?

Constitutive vs regulated.

10

Function of diolichol?

N linked glycosylation

11

O linked glycosylation?

Glycosyltransferase.

12

Roles of propyl and lysyl oxidises?

P for h bonds
L for cross links

13

Types of base repair

Base excision - 1-5 oxidative
Nucleotide- 30 uV and carcinogens
Mismatch- 1, DNA synthesis.

14

How are slides prepared histiologically?

Fixed using glutaldehyde or formaldehyde Dehydrated alcohol
Cleared xylene or toluene
Embedded in paraffin
Rehydrated
Stained
Dehydrated

15

Types of microscopy

Confocal - focus to remove glare 3D
Phase contract- live cells and refeaction
Dark field - shadows?
Fluerescent

26

Describe endochondral ossification

Perineal bone appears
Primary ossification centre the central cartilage appears supplied by the nutrient artery.
Medulla becomes cancellous bone and secondary ossification sites appear.
Ossification in epi thesis.
Plates continue to grow, cartilage grows and ossifies.

27

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Type I collagen deficient. Autosomal dominant.

28

Effects of botulism toxins

Inhibits ACH release

29

What inhibits acetylcholine?

Organophosphates

30

Describe duchenne muscular dystrophy

Recessive x-linked condition
Lack of dystrophin so muscles rip apart
Calcium causes necrosis

31

Erythrocyte production?

Erythropoietin production at the kidneys in response to hypoxia. Reticulocyte is precursor, organelles extracted

32

Astrocytes and micro glial cells

Astrocytes - mediate metabolic exchange at neurone
Micro glial cells- form blood brain barrier.

33

Types of mesoderm and what they become

Paraxial- repeating structures of muscles, bones and dermis.
Somatic- connective tissues of limb
Splanchnic- smooth muscle, gut wall connective tissue and vasculature.
Intermediate-kidneys, ureter, gonads

34

Describe galactose metabolism

To galactose 1 P via galactokinase.
To glucose 1 P via epimerase (UDP) and galactose 1 P ur idyl transferase.
To 6 P

35

Probs in galactose metabolism

Transferase - hepatomegaly and jaundice
Galactokinase - cataracts (aldose reductase), galactose in urine.

36

Synthesis of fatty acids

Acetyl CoA+ Co2 -> malonyl CoA (acetyl CoA carboxylase)
Malonyl CoA -> 2faC and co2 (fatty acid synthase complex)
Carboxylase limits rate - regulated by citrate and amp.
Insulin increases and glucagon/inhibit.

37

Enzymes in glycogen breakdown?

Glycogen phosphorylase.
Phosphoglucomutase
Glucose 6 phosphatases.

38

How is step 10 avoided in gluconeogenesis

PEPCK - increased by glucagon, cortisol and decreased by insulin
Pyruvate carboxylase

39

Describe the reactions involved in transamination

Aa + a-ketoglutarate -> glutamate + keto acid
Aa+ oxaloacetate -> aspartate + keto acid
ALT - alanine -> glutamate
ASP- aspartate <- glutamate

40

Ammonia detoxification including the role of glutamine

NH3 + glutamate-> glutamine
Kidneys- excreted directly
Liver- used to synthesise urea
Broken down to ammonia by glutaminase
Also by urea cycle - aspartate can enter.