Flashcards in Ethics And Welfare Deck (31)
What is the spectrum of opinion on the use of animals in science?
Animal right extremists
Animal welfare scientists
Welfare minded scientists
Science: animals are just tools
What is the moral position of absolute dominion?
Where all animal experiments are justified
What were Rene Descartes opinions on the use of animals?
That animals did not think and had “no capacity for reasoning, therefore no perception of pain or suffering”
What is speciesism?
Assigning different values or rights to beings on the basis of their biological species, rather than according to the characteristics they posses
What is the validity and necessity of using animals in research from absolute dominion point of view?
Animals make good models for humans
Fundamental part of medical research- legal requirement for drugs to be tested on animals
Currently alternatives to animal based research are insufficient
Whole organisms required to model complex organisation and processes that we see inside us
What can go wrong when testing new drugs on animals for human use?
Some side effects may not be picked up in animal studies
The wrong animal could be used
What is the other end of the spectrum to absolute dominion?
What is the validity and necessity of not using animals in research from an abolition point of view?
Animal use is unnecessary
Medical advances have been achieved by human based research
We can use existing knowledge
Viable alternatives are available
Money better spent on prevention not cure
What are some examples of when animal experiments can be misleading?
Some medicines damaging to animal health but not humans e.g penicillin lethal to guinea pigs, paracetamol lethal to cats
Some can damage human health but not animals e.g. thalidomide
What is the middle moral position on the use of animals in research?
‘Troubled’ middle ground
Almost all animal use worldwide works on this position
What are the 3 Rs?
Reduction, replacement and refinement
What is reduction?
Reduction of the number of animals to an absolute minimum without compromising precision or value
What is replacement?
Replacement of sentient animals with non-living on non-animal alternatives e.g plants, chemical methods, modelling
What is refinement?
Refinement of procedures by decreasing incidence and severity of pain/distress caused by improving welfare
What percentage of research uses animals?
What does the Animals Scientific Procedures Act 1986 apply to?
Any experimental or other scientific procedure applied to a protected animal which may have the effect of causing that animal pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm
What does protected species cover?
Living vertebrates and cephalopods
Fetal, larval and embryonic forms are included
What are the controls in the animal scientific procedure act?
Purpose of research: project licence
People conducting research: personal licence
Places that research is conducted: certificate of designation
A procedure is regulated if it causes what?
Death, disease and injury
Physiological and psychological stress
Discomfort and disturbance to normal health
Breeding of animals with harmful genetic defects
Administration of anaesthetics to achieve scientific purpose
When is a personal licence required?
Required by an individual to carry out regulated procedures on protected species in a specific place
What does a project licence do?
Specifies the programme of work for an allowable purpose under control of an individual
Project licence holder has overall responsibility
What does the cost benefit analysis look at?
Whether the benefit to humans outweighs the cost to the animal
What does the certificate designation require?
Named people to be in place
Ensures minimum standards are maintained
What are some of the named people required in the certificate of designation?
Named veterinary surgeon
Named animal care and welfare officer
Training and competency officer
Home office liaison contact
Who is the certificate holder?
The person weigh overall responsibility for compliance with ASPA
What does the information officer do?
Ensures PILs and PPLs have access to current information
What does the training and competency officer do?
Ensures personal licences are properly trained and supervised, are competent and that this is recorded
Who administers the Act?
The home office
What does the animal welfare ethics review body do? (AWERB)
Reviews all project applications before submitting them to the home office