Describe the ages of consent in Scotland regarding sexual intercourse.
- <13: cannot consent; must report to Social Services
- 13-15: cannot legally consent, although consensual touching / kissing etc. considered normal part of growing up
- > 16: considered competent in all sexual decisions
- 16-18 w/ mental disorder: requires advocate
What are the Fraser guidelines used for?
Providing contraception to <16yr olds without parental consent.
Describe the Fraser guidelines.
- sufficient maturity and intelligence to understand the nature and consequences of Mx
- cannot be persuaded to tell parents, or allow doctor to do so
- likely to begin/continue intercourse with or without protection/contraception
- physical/mental health likely to suffer w/out Mx
- Mx is in patient’s best interest
When may it be acceptable to perform otherwise illegal examinations (e.g., rectal/vaginal exam of a child)?
- there is a legitimate reason to do so
- consent is received from a responsible person, unless it is an emergency
Define ‘domestic violence / abuse’.
any incident, or pattern of incidents, of controlling, coercive, or threatening behaviour, violence, or abuse between those age >16 who have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.
- this encompasses, but is not limited to, psychological, physical, sexual, financial, emotional abuse
Describe the epidemiology of domestic abuse.
- 1/4 women experience domestic violence over their lifetimes.
- In 90% of cases, children were in the same or adjacent room. In 50% of cases, children were also abused.
- 1/3 of domestic violence starts, or gets worse, with pregnancy.
Define coercive control.
acts of / pattern of assault, threats, humiliation, intimidation used to harm, punish, or frighten the victim
Define gender based violence (GBV).
primarily against women by men. this includes domestic abuse, rape / sexual assault, stalking / harassment, commercial exploitation, and ‘honour-based’ violence
Describe potential features of physical, emotional, behavioural, and controlling abuse.
- physical: black eyes, bruises, busted lips, red / purple neck marks, sprained wrists
- emotional: agitation, anxiety, apprehension, meek / apologetic, low self-esteem, depressed
- behavioural: distant, isolated, excess privacy, signs of fear, describes perpetrator as ‘worse when drinking’ etc.
- controlling: asks permission, constant calls/texts, tracking, no money/vehicle, describes as ‘possessive’
Describe the 5R’s model of managing domestic abuse.
- recognise: ‘are you alone?’ ‘can I ask you about your relationship with x?’
- respond: ‘i believe you’ ‘this is not your fault’
- risk assess: form a plan, dial 999 if in immediate danger
- refer: safeguarding team, local services
- record: ensure this is hidden from perpetrators