Ethnicity And Educational Achievement Flashcards Preview

Sociology: Education > Ethnicity And Educational Achievement > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ethnicity And Educational Achievement Deck (16):

Patterns of achievement
* - compared to

Chinese, Indian+Bangladeshi students perform well in exams achieving about the national average
White British+Black African students perform national average
Pakistani+Black Caribbean underperform*average
Gypsy/Roma students significantly underperform
Within all groups(not roma)girls better than boys
W/c white ppl perform lower than w/c other groups


External Factors
1. Language

Kids from low income black families aren't able to develop reasoning+problem solving skills as their experiences @home don't focus on developing these
Kids speak in dis-jointed, grammatically incorrect forms- unable to explain in more detail
Some kids argued to be held back as they may/family may not speak English whilst at home
-> evidence that this wont be effective as pupils w/English as 1st language were only 3% higher in GCSE A*-C pass rate than those who didn't


External factor
2. Attitudes and values

Argued that many black children have a lack of motivation to education preferring to adopt a 'fatalistic' attitude to their work rather than being 'optimistic' and shaping their future
W/c subculture- 'live for today' attitude, common in culture which doesn't foster ambition, competition/the sacrifice needed to reach long-term goals e.g. Qualifications


External factors
3. Family structures: Moynihan

Argues many black families are matrifocal (only mum no dad), children deprived of adequate care as mother has to both work and raise the children
The lack of role-models result in poor socialisation, especially of black boys, cycle then reproduces itself as children remain poorly socialised and form unstable families - failing in school


External factors
3. Family structures: Pryce

He compared Black Caribbean+Asian pupils
Asian families: encouraged resilience to racism which would maintain a positive morale and focus
Black Caribbean: less integrated w/their children, more likely to develop low self-esteem when forced w/discrimination
-> results in poorer performances in school, historical events e.g. Slavery broke up family structures


External Factors
3. Family structures: Bhatti

Found parents of Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Asian children were v supportive of their children succeeding in education and had high level of interest in it.
They didn't understand the daily processes of the school, it's organisation/ how to make contact w/it so avoided contacting the school as much as pos
Many white w/c families foster low levels of aspiration+achievement resulting in children behaving poorly in school+not pushing themselves to achieve qualifications. Many ethnic students see education as helpful w/position in society and recognise importance of qualifications


Evaluation of external factor: family structure

1. Black Caribbean families provide strong +ve role-models for girls+many males find role-models in their extended kin
2. Students may fail as of low self-esteem caused by racism rather than a lack of a cultural identity and being part of a strong coherent group
3. Schools are 'institutionally racist' and 'ethnocentric' which results in students underperforming


External factors
4. Material Deprivation

Palmer gives evidence, compared to whites:
50% ethnic minority kids live in low income compared to 25% of whites
Ethnic minorities 2x likely to be unemployed
Ethnic families 3x more likely to be homeless
Around 50% Bangladeshi+Pakistani workers earned less than £7 per hour
Ethnic minorities more likely to be employed in shift work, women in low paid home working
-> could be as many live in economically deprived areas, lack of language skills etc


Internal factors
1. Teacher Labelling

Research suggest that teachers don't regard black+Asian pupil as 'ideal students'
-ve labels were often attached to both groups: black: aggressive, disruptive. Asian: passive
Gillborn+Youdell found teachers were quicker to discipline black students for same behaviour as others. Teachers had 'racialised expectations'
Wright showed how Asian primary school students were labelled by teachers who assumed that they would've poor understanding of language - so asked less challenging questions, restricted code


Internal factors
2. Setting and Streaming

Teacher's stereotypes often result in black students being placed in lower set+streams as teachers assume that less intelligence w/behaviour
Students can internalise this label - SFP
Gillbourn+Youdell found as schools focus on the A-C economy' students perceived more likely to underperform incl. black students are put in lower sets+streams - resulted in 'educational triage' working -vely for underperforming black students


Internal factors
3. Pupil identities

Archer: 3 dominant way of looking @pupil..
1. Ideal pupil identity: white,m/c,masculine w/a normal sexuality- seen achieving through IQ
2. Pathological pupil identity: Asian students, feminine, asexual/oppressed sexuality- seen as 'plodding' through 'hard work' than nature
3. Demonised pupil identity: black/white w/c, hyper-sexualised - seen as unintelligent, peer led and underachieving
Teachers saw chinese girls as too quiet, 'educational automatons', males as 'effeminate and subordinate'
'Proper achievement' therefore domain of white m/c students only


Internal factors
4. Student subcultures
* advice given

Mairtin Mac and Ghaill: studied Black+Asian Alevel student @6th form, students who believed teachers had labelled them -vely didn't necessarily accept the label, shows all labels don't produce SFP
Mirza found racist teachers discouraged black pupils from being ambitious through 3 types of *
1. Colour blind: believed all pupils equal, racism go under challenged
2. Liberal chauvmists: believe black pupils are culturally deprived, have low expectations of them
3. Overt racist: believe blacks are inferior, discriminate against them
Girls' time - avoiding effects of -ve attitudes


Internal factors
5. Schools are 'institutionally racist'
A) Marketisation and Selection

Lack of info+application form in ethnic lang
Primary school reports stereotyped minority pupil especially in regard to language difficulty
Racist bias occurred in interviews for schl places
Schools didn't share deadlines for applications w/parents from ethnic minority backgrounds
Could be argued education has 'ethnically stratified education system' as not all students are able to be selected by all schools


Internal factors
5. Schools are 'institutionally racist'
B) Ethnocentric school curriculum

Troyna+Williams have been highly critical saying schools haven't really achieved this and payed 'lip service' to it focusing on:
3S's- Saris,samosas+steel band to combat the 3R's- Resistance, rejection+rebellion
Coard explains 'Ethnocentric curriculum' can lead students to underachieve as it leaves them w/low self-esteem and unmotivated e.g. Christian holidays, staffing w/lack of role-models etc


Internal factors
5. Schools are 'Institutionally racist'
C) New IQism

Gillbourn argues access to education often originates from teacher expectations. White students are 5x more likely to be identified as 'Gifted+talented' compared to black African pupils are mor likely to be entered for low tiers on exams
Assessments used to determine which set/stream to place pupils in use a 'foundation stage profile' (FSP) which ranks black students as lower in IQ than white students


Evaluation of internal factors

Gillbourns theory doesn't explain why some ethnic minority groups like Chinese students perform well+overachieve. These students have been described as 'model minorities'
He believed however, the success of 'model minorities' legitimised failure of other minority groups- showing an image that all students can achieve if they took advantage of opportunities and ignored racism which occurred within schools
Chines students report similar level of racism against them as other groups, success allows schools to overlook this