Flashcards in ETOPS Deck (36):
What is ETOPS
= extended twin engine ops.
= flights that extend beyond 60 min flight time at single engine cruise speed.
What is the single engine cruise speed for ETOPS?
What is an ADEQUATE airport?
- Satisfies the physical characteristics detailed in CAO 82.0
- overflight and landing authorisations
- Ground assistance ( ATC, MET and air information services, lighting.
- at least 1 suitable authorised instrument approach
what are the ATC requirements for Adequate airports?
- ops outside Australia must have ATC or have call out within 30 min
- ops inside Australia, non controlled airports are acceptable provided when airport lighting required PAL is available.
What are the Rescue and Firefighting Service (RFFS) requirements?
- outside Australia must have RFFS. call out service within 30 minutes provided the min service is equivalent to CAT 4
- Ops within Australia RFFS not required
What is the CPE?
- Critical Point ETOPS
- Point on route which is critical with regard to the ETOPS
fuel requirements if a diversion has to be initiated from
- Equi Time Point (ETP) usually
- INTER/TEMPO holding will be included as special
holding fuel part of the reserves for that leg of the
- FROM THE CPE THE AIRCRAFT CAN DIVERT TO EITHER AIRPORT WITH THE APPROPRIATE RESERVES INCLUDING HOLDING FUEL
- Always upwind
- in very strong wind can even be beyond the EXP or prior to the EEP
What happens to the CPE if there is only one Adequate airport nominated?
- obviously no ETP
- CPE is usually positioned on the EEP or EXP depending
on which airport has been used.
What is the ETOPS area of operation
- The area in which flight under ETOPS is authorised.
i.e with in the Max Diversion distance
- 767 = 180 min or 1200nm
What is the CAO that deals with ETOPS?
What is the ETOPS segment?
- Starts at the EEP and ends at the EXP
- even if route passes within 60 min flight time at OEI
speed from an adequate airport.
Explain the 60 min diversion distance?
- covered in still air and ISA conditions
- at the nominated OEI speed = .80M/310kts
- 415 NM
What is the Maximum Diversion Time and Distance?
- 180 min = 1200NM
- 120 min = 800NM
- 60 min = 415NM
- it includes the descent from the initial cruise altitude to
the new cruise altitude.
- It makes no allowance for the descent from the normal
cruise altitude or the approach and landing.
- Max time is only used to determine the area of operation and is not an operational time limitation for conducting a diversion.
If an Engine failure occurs do you have to fly at the .80M/310kts?
- PIC has authority to deviate from this speed following assessment of the situation (FAM 14.2.10)
What is a Nominated Adequate?
- An adequate airport that satisfies the WX criteria
- Pre flight forecast must be above adequate criteria. inflight can use Landing minima provided the first forecast has been obtained and it was above the adequate minima.
- no need to notify ATC if change.
- only need to contact dispatch if NOTAM or WX needed.
- WX for 30 min before earliest time of arrival and30 min after latest ETA
- cross wind needs no be not above limits
- needs to be available as per NOTAMS/ MELs etc
What is a Usable Adequate?
- Available ( as per NOTAM)
- Satisfies the ETOPS adequate minima requirements for
What if the preflight forecast not available?
May still depart provided;
- inflight, prior to sole reliance WX must be obtained that
is above the Adequate minima
- once such a forecast has been obtained, subsequent
forcast need only be assessed against landing minima..
What happens if the Preflight forecast is below the Adequate minima?
- They will not be used in flight plan or critical fuel calculations
- if you are flying the tasmin for example and have an MEL restricting 120 min ETOPS and ALL east coast is below adequate minima then ??????
What happens when there is not an onward airport for the CPE to be based on?
CAV5 = can depart but not proceed to beyond the CPE, unless a required usable adequate airport is available and you have the fuel to proceed to that airport while complying with the most limiting critical fuel scenario and ETOPS fuel reserves.
Where can you find the Adequate minima?
- CAO 82.0
- CAO 82.0 is reproduced in the FAM
what happens when a WX report was not able to be obtained in flight prior to entering the ETOPS area?
- " The flight crew must make every effort to obtain a updated WX report for airports used to support ETOPS operations"
- As long as you have assessed the first WX report against the Adequate minima you may proceed without an update to that provided you have "made every effort" to obtain another report.
What do you do if the WX report inflight is below one of the nominated adequate landing minima?
- Prior to EEP you may proceed ETOPS if you can remain within the Max Diversion Distance of a usable adequate that the WX is above the landing minima.
- If you are unable to remain within the max diversion distance of a usable adequate then an alternate course of action is required.
- After the EEP if WX falls below landing minima there is no requirement to plan alternate course of action if unable to remain within the max diversion distance of the airport above the landing minima.
How is the aircrafts reference weight calculated?
Calculated using MTOW then all engines operating climb then LRC at the optimum flight level under ISA conditions.
note: there may be routes that are have restricted takeoff weights then the RTOW may be considered in lieu of structural MTOW.
What are the Diversion Strategies?
- Obstacle clearance
- Fixed Speed Strategy
What is Standard Diversion Strategy?
- Descent at a designated Mach/IAS down to an altitude close to the long range cruise ceiling and a diversion cruise at LRC speed.
- gives best fuel burn but diversion time is increased in relation to the fixed speed strategy
What is the Obstacle Clearance Strategy?
- Driftdown at optimum drift down speed until obstacles
are cleared then Standard strategy
- gives best altitude profile
What is the Fixed Speed strategy?
- Descent and cruise at the selected speed schedule
- Used for flight planing purposes
- gives minimum possible diversion time at the expense
of fuel burn and altitude capability
Do you have to fly at the pre planned speed stratagy?
No the PIC can adopt the strategy they consider the most appropriate according to the safest course of action.
What would require the PIC to plan an alternate course of action or remain non- ETOPS?
Prior to EEP:
- Comms = must be able to maintain constant comms with
ATC and flight dispatch.
- Aircraft performance = a change in aircraft performance
capability may make a particular aerodrome
no longer adequate i.e. anti-skid.
- Navigation Facilities = must be available to enable an
approach and landing at the adequate
- ETOPS required Equipment: ?????????
note: if a change in status occurs after the EEP, there is no need to plan an alternate course of action
What is a "critical systems failure"?
- Engine failure
- electrical failure that results in electrical power being
available from not more than one primary source. (not
- Hydraulic failure that seriously restrict the operation of
What is the requirement if you have a critical systems failure?
- Precludes ETOPS
- and requires an enroute diversion if in the ETOPS segment.
- Does NOT require you to land at nearest Adequate Airport, you may proceed to any Main, alternate or Adequate airport within the Max diversion distance or time which ever is most limiting.
- However it must not exceed the flight time to a nearest suitable. airport
- PIC MUST contact company as soon as operationally possible for updated advise on WX, airport facilities, call out requirements and technical recommendations
What factors must be considered if you elect to continue beyond the nearest airport which satisfies the operation requirements after a critical systems failure?
- Nature of malfunction and the possible mechanical
difficulties which may occur if the flight is continued.
- availability of inoperative system for use
- relative flight times to available airports
- Air traffic congestion
- Type of terrain
- Crew familiarity
note: care is required in establish the creative priorities of FUEL versus Time of exposure following a malfunction
ETOPS FUEL Requirements?
Critical fuel Scenario
- Fuel calculated out to CPE then two seperate failure scenarios and the most critical scenario is used
- two scenarios are;
- Engine failure and Depress
- 767 = engine failure and depressurisation
What is the diversion profile used in ETOPS critical fuel scenario calculations?
- Descent at pre planned speed to the required altitude
- diversion at pre determined speed
- normal decent down to 1500'
- 15 min holding at this altitude
What reserves do ETOPS fuel calcs use?
- CPE to diversion airport at 1500'
- 15 min holding at 1500'
- Special holding as required
- tail number correction
- Effect of any MEL/ CDL
- APU fuel consumption
note: there are no VFR so to account for the errors in the wind a 5% wind speed factor is used (increased headwind/ decreased tailwind)
- If icing conditions are forecast then the extra fuel used
for; - either 10% of the time anti ice is required.
- fuel used for anti ice for the entire time which icing
What happens if you reach the CPE with less than the fuel on board required at the CPE on the flight plan?
It is pre flight planning requirement only