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Honors Principles of Biology II > Eubacteria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eubacteria Deck (16):

Domain and Kingdom

Domain: Bacteria
Kingdom: Eubacteria


Arrangement of Bacteria

Double: "Diplo" + shape
Chain: "Strepto" + shape
Cluster: "Staphylo" + shape
Single: shape name


Shape of Bacteria

Spherical - coccus
Rod-Like - bacillus
Spiral-shaped - spirillium


Within Kingdom Eubacteria

Proteobacteria Clade
Chlamydia Clade
Spirochete Clade
Cyanobacteria Clade
Gram-Positive Bacteria Clade



Diverse clade of gram-negative bacteria. Species can be aerobic, anaerobic, autotrophic, heterotrophic, or chemoautotrophic.


Within Proteobacteria:

Alpha Subgroup
Beta Subgroup
Gamma Subgroup
Delta Subgroup
Epsilon Subgroup
Acidobacteria Subgroup (not really covered)


Alpha Subgroup

Most species are closely associated with a eukaryotic host. Depedent on the host. Mitochondria in eukaryotes is a good example. Rhizobium inside root cell of legume (nitrogen fixing). Mitochondria in eukaryotes- endosymbiosis with two groups.


Beta Subgroup

Nitrosomanos important for recycling nitrogen in ecosystems. Energy from nitrogen recycle. Organic forms of nitrogen fixed by this group. NH4+ --> NO2-


Gamma Subgroup

Mainly chemoautotrophic. Energy by oxidizing H2S (hydrogen sulfide). Some heterotrophic pathogens (salmonella, cholera, E. coli)


Delta Subgroup

Soil-living. During droughts, cells congregate to form fruiting bodies. Fruiting bodies produce myxospores. Bdellovibrio- 100 micrometers per second travel speed. Drilling occurs at 100 rotations per second.


Epsilon Subgroup

Pathogenic bacteria. Helicobacteria phylori causes stomach ulcers. Campylobacteria causes blood poisoning.


Chlamydia Clade

Parasitic, only survive in host as they are dependent on ATP production. Gram negative bacteria, lack peptidoglycan entirely. Most common STD in the U.S., also leading cause of blindness worldwide.


Spirochete Clade

All spirillium shaped, all gram negative. Endocellular flagella. Move like a corkscrew. Free-living and parasitic (syphilis, lyme disease).


Cyanobacteria Clade

Gram negative, photoautotrophic, only bacteria that undergo photosythesis. Chloroplasts in eukaryotes --> endosymbiosis with this group. Lots of filamentous, sphere, and sheet formations. Have nitrogen-fixing heterocysts.


Gram Positive Bacteria Clade

Actinomycetes- soil bacteria that give it the "earthly odor". Streptomyce within this group. More antibiotics from this group than any other in the world given by these guys. Some pathogens- Tuberculosis, Anthrax, and botulism.


Acidobacteria Subgroup

Proteobacteria Clade. Acidophillic, thus prefer low pH environments.