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Flashcards in Eukaryotic Cell biology Deck (25):
1

Organisms can consist of how many cells?

One cell being unicellular or multiple cells being multicellular organisms

2

Are all cells the same

No the types of cells can vary throughout an organism

3

What is the main way to differentiate between cells? What is the main difference between them?

Categorising them as either prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Eukaryotes contain membrane bound organelles, most notably the nucleus which contains the DNA of the cell.

4

How many cells do eukaryotes generally consist of?

Multiple cells being called a multicellular organism

5

What do eukaryotes generally need?

Oxygen for metabolism, which is essential for their survival.

6

Cell membrane

Encloses the cell, keeping it intact. Made up of a phospholipid bilayer that is amphipathic, having hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails. It regulates the movement of molecules into and out of the cell. It is selectively permeable.

7

What else is embedded in the PM?

Proteins

8

What is difference between PM membrane and organelle membrane?

Degree of folding

9

What is the nucleus

Control centre of the cell, contains the genetic info.

10

Explain nucleus structure

Nucleus = nuclear membrane with nuclear pores. Inner nucleus membrane is KA nucleolus.

11

RER

Endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes. Site of protein synthesis, protein folding, the transportation of proteins and further protein modification.

12

SER

Isn't studded with ribosomes. Site of steroid and lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, drug detoxification and calcium concentration regulation.

13

Golgi complex

Stack of flattened membranous sacs. Responsible for packaging newly synthesised proteins in small membrane enclosed vesicles either used in the cell of exported out of a cell via exocytosis.

14

Lysosome

digesting food or cellular invaders, recycling of cellular components and cell suicide.

15

Main concept about lysosomes

Not in plant cells but vacuole in plant cells have a similar role in the cellular functioning.

16

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell generating ATP which is necessary for cellular functioning. In both plant and animal cells. Has a role in signalling, differentiation and cell death.

17

What is an important part about mitochondria

Maternal DNA

18

Cytoskeleton

Provides structure to a cell, being capable of adjusting its structure to account or the changing structure of the cell. Three types include:
-mictrofilaments e.g. actin
-Microfilaments e.g. Alpha-Beta Tubulin Dimer
-Intermediate filaments

19

Microfilaments

Responsible for providing structural support and cell movement

20

Microtubules

Localization and transport, in addition to cell division.

21

Intermediate filaments

Provide mechanical stability to the PM + nuclear membranes, + cell-to-cell interaction.

22

Three unique components of plant cells include

-Vacuole
-Chloroplast
-Cell wall

23

Chloroplast

Solar panel of the cell, responsible for capturing light and convertig it into ATP and NADPH. These are organic molecules derived from CO2 and H2O

24

Cell Wall

Provides structural support and protection to a plant cell. It adds additional strength to plants, esp. woody plants.

25

Central vacuole

Isolates harmful material, exporting them out of the cell. It maintains hydrostatic pressure within the cell and keeps the pH acidic. We say it controls a cells turgor pressure.