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What are the three definitions of evolvability

Heritiability - within pops the standing genetic variation and covariation
Evolvability - within pops inc variability and depends on genetic architecture and dev constraints
innovation - within clades same as within species but inc the capacity to overcome standing gen var and dev contraints opening new areas of ptype space for further ev


What is the effect of heritability?

determines the response to n.sel within pops
eg diff colour moth


what is the effect of evolvability?

long term adaptation
channels ev along non-random trajectories
allows mid-term exploration of ptypic space
eg beak size


what is the effet of innovation ?

generate ptype novelties
eg shell of turtle through the fusion of ribs
dev drives and constrains


what are the mechanism of evolvability?

robustness = consistent ptype with env disturb , results in neutral spaces that accumulate gen variants which are reservoir for evolvability
Modulatrity - degree traits ind of eachother, can't measure by ptype of gen corr,


what is the evidence that evolvability can evolve?

mut/rrecomb rates vary across taxa depend on gen
ptype space not constrained by dev


what is the evidence that evolvability can evolve by n. sel?

mutator genes in bac, ability to evolve is selected due to direct linkage to ne mut it generates


what is a theory of mind?

people feel as i feel


what animals have theory of mind?

chimp - comfort but no effect/deliberate touchin understand
rhesus monkey understand deliberate touching
tamarin do not
chimaps false beliefs (imp in dominanace?)
orangs dont coop


what animals will do cooperation tasks and show IA?

capuchin pull task given treat want same as partner
Chimps share better with partner known long time and who more sharing and protest selfish behav
don't marmosets/tamarin/orangs


what is unique about humans and tools

h.erectus had but v slow alteration over a milion yrs to improve


do other animals have language?

chimp use sign language but no creation/teaching/time travel
mainly requests


do other animals do art?

imp to ancient humans 40kya indonesian cave/ necklace of teeth shells 50kya
gibraltar cave neandethals crow feather deco
fashion chimp with stick ear


are dogs guilty?

no react to being told off


what animals show positive for MRI

1 elephant
monkey (diff reaction mirror/window w friend/window w stranger)
manta ray
???? bottlenose dolphins/ pigeon / magpie (2pass) jackdaws


what are the problems with MRI?

low sample
1 yr old children don't pass
aggr gorilla eye contact imp
relevance for sp (mark and mirrior)
is this a test of conciousness


What is the baldwin effect

interaction of evolution with learning by individual animals over their lifetime.
env sens to behav
ontogenic experienc


what is activational plasticity?

differential activity of underlying networks in different enviroments an immediate response the netwroks already there


describe the evidence that maladaptive plastcity facilitates evolution?

transplant guppies from a stream with predators to one without
compare the brain gene expr in the introduced and ancestral species of the stream with no predators after 3/4 gens
expr changed in parallel in introduced pops
new levels of expression were similar to the ancestral
the evolved differences were mostly (89% of the genes) in the opposite direction to that of phenotypic plasticity in expression patterns in the ancestral population
but in opposite direction to ancestral species
away from optimal phnotype therefore maladpative
perhaps a strong driver of ev


what is exaptation?

cooption of function


example of exaptation

mantling in black heron feathers and wings ev for other purpose


what are the main features of the extended synthesis?

Reciprocal causation - dev bias/ niche con inc
Inclusive inheritance - epigen/cultural these bias sel
Non-random phenotypic variation
Saltation can also occur
Evolution redefined as change in distribution of heritable traits


what is the difference gradualisam and saltationism

slow step vs big jumps in ev
darwin vs mendel


what is pangenesis

messages somatic to germ cells that generate new variation in each gen
darwin way of attempting to explain heritable variation inh


what important conclusion were made by Fisher 1918 paper?

variation has genetic and non-genetic source that are selectable
expalined mendel wrt n.sel
paradigm that significant ev changes can occur in large pop aar of small independent loci


what were the main points of the modern synthesis ?

n.sel explains adaptation
genetic inheritance only
random genetic variation
gene centre view, evolution the chnage in gene freq


critiques of the modern synthesis

theory of genes not form (popper)
ev theory needs to go with advances mulller 2017
organisms are not just genetic systems alone
gradulism not alaways (hox)
doesn't explain everything


what evolutionary phenomena does MS not explain?

develomental p
nice construction
(these eg of reciprocal causation and acquired char)
genomics (old arguments of graulism dont add up)
evo-devo (some dev bias some more liekly)


what are the fundamentals of concerted brain evolution?

parts constrained in independet evolution by dev and ev as a whole
same set of loci reg size of all parts
should therefore have pos corr between parts


evidence of concerted brain evolution

study in the 90s looked at overall brain size and size of individual parts in diff species
found that non linear corr between brain size and part size
neocortex bigger when brain bigger aar of being the last to form