Flashcards in everything Deck (106)
What are the three definitions of evolvability
Heritiability - within pops the standing genetic variation and covariation
Evolvability - within pops inc variability and depends on genetic architecture and dev constraints
innovation - within clades same as within species but inc the capacity to overcome standing gen var and dev contraints opening new areas of ptype space for further ev
What is the effect of heritability?
determines the response to n.sel within pops
eg diff colour moth
what is the effect of evolvability?
long term adaptation
channels ev along non-random trajectories
allows mid-term exploration of ptypic space
eg beak size
what is the effet of innovation ?
generate ptype novelties
eg shell of turtle through the fusion of ribs
dev drives and constrains
what are the mechanism of evolvability?
robustness = consistent ptype with env disturb , results in neutral spaces that accumulate gen variants which are reservoir for evolvability
Modulatrity - degree traits ind of eachother, can't measure by ptype of gen corr,
what is the evidence that evolvability can evolve?
mut/rrecomb rates vary across taxa depend on gen
ptype space not constrained by dev
what is the evidence that evolvability can evolve by n. sel?
mutator genes in bac, ability to evolve is selected due to direct linkage to ne mut it generates
what is a theory of mind?
people feel as i feel
what animals have theory of mind?
chimp - comfort but no effect/deliberate touchin understand
rhesus monkey understand deliberate touching
tamarin do not
chimaps false beliefs (imp in dominanace?)
orangs dont coop
what animals will do cooperation tasks and show IA?
capuchin pull task given treat want same as partner
Chimps share better with partner known long time and who more sharing and protest selfish behav
what is unique about humans and tools
h.erectus had but v slow alteration over a milion yrs to improve
do other animals have language?
chimp use sign language but no creation/teaching/time travel
do other animals do art?
imp to ancient humans 40kya indonesian cave/ necklace of teeth shells 50kya
gibraltar cave neandethals crow feather deco
fashion chimp with stick ear
are dogs guilty?
no react to being told off
what animals show positive for MRI
monkey (diff reaction mirror/window w friend/window w stranger)
???? bottlenose dolphins/ pigeon / magpie (2pass) jackdaws
what are the problems with MRI?
1 yr old children don't pass
aggr gorilla eye contact imp
relevance for sp (mark and mirrior)
is this a test of conciousness
What is the baldwin effect
interaction of evolution with learning by individual animals over their lifetime.
env sens to behav
what is activational plasticity?
differential activity of underlying networks in different enviroments an immediate response the netwroks already there
describe the evidence that maladaptive plastcity facilitates evolution?
transplant guppies from a stream with predators to one without
compare the brain gene expr in the introduced and ancestral species of the stream with no predators after 3/4 gens
expr changed in parallel in introduced pops
new levels of expression were similar to the ancestral
the evolved differences were mostly (89% of the genes) in the opposite direction to that of phenotypic plasticity in expression patterns in the ancestral population
but in opposite direction to ancestral species
away from optimal phnotype therefore maladpative
perhaps a strong driver of ev
what is exaptation?
cooption of function
example of exaptation
mantling in black heron feathers and wings ev for other purpose
what are the main features of the extended synthesis?
Reciprocal causation - dev bias/ niche con inc
Inclusive inheritance - epigen/cultural these bias sel
Non-random phenotypic variation
Saltation can also occur
Evolution redefined as change in distribution of heritable traits
what is the difference gradualisam and saltationism
slow step vs big jumps in ev
darwin vs mendel
what is pangenesis
messages somatic to germ cells that generate new variation in each gen
darwin way of attempting to explain heritable variation inh
what important conclusion were made by Fisher 1918 paper?
variation has genetic and non-genetic source that are selectable
expalined mendel wrt n.sel
paradigm that significant ev changes can occur in large pop aar of small independent loci
what were the main points of the modern synthesis ?
n.sel explains adaptation
genetic inheritance only
random genetic variation
gene centre view, evolution the chnage in gene freq
critiques of the modern synthesis
theory of genes not form (popper)
ev theory needs to go with advances mulller 2017
organisms are not just genetic systems alone
gradulism not alaways (hox)
doesn't explain everything
what evolutionary phenomena does MS not explain?
(these eg of reciprocal causation and acquired char)
genomics (old arguments of graulism dont add up)
evo-devo (some dev bias some more liekly)
what are the fundamentals of concerted brain evolution?
parts constrained in independet evolution by dev and ev as a whole
same set of loci reg size of all parts
should therefore have pos corr between parts