Toward the head end of the upper body; above
Superior (cranial). Ex, The head is superior to the abdomen.
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of the structure of the body; below
Inferior (caudal). Ex. the navel is inferior to the chin.
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of
Ventral or Anterior. Ex. The breastbone is anterior to the spine.
Toward or at the back of the body; behind
Dorsal or Posterior. Ex. The heart is posterior to the breastbone
Toward of at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Medial. Ex. The heart is medial to the arm
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
Lateral. Ex. The arms are lateral to the chest
Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Intermediate. The collarbone is intermediate "between" the breastbone and the shoulder.
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Proximal. Ex. The elbow is proximal to the wrist.
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Distal. The knee is distal to the thigh.
Toward or at the body surface
Superficial (external) Ex. The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
Away from the body surface; more internal
Deep (internal). Ex. The lungs are deep to the skin