Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

Genetics > Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (60):
1

How does the Hopi culture contribute to the high incidence of albinism among its members?

a) Albino men enjoyed mating advantages, which helped to spread their albino genes. b) the Hopi tribe is very small thus increasing the frequency of the albino gene.

2

Drosophilia melanogaster

(fruit fly),

3

Escherichia coli

(bacterium),

4

Caenorhabditis elegans

(nematode),

5

Arabidopsis thaliana

(thale-cress plant),

6

Mus musculus

(house mouse)

7

Saccharomyces cervisiae

(baker’s yeast).

8

(fruit fly),

Drosophilia melanogaster

9

(bacterium),

Escherichia coli

10

(nematode),

Caenorhabditis elegans

11

(thale-cress plant),

Arabidopsis thaliana

12

(house mouse)

Mus musculus

13

(baker’s yeast).

Saccharomyces cervisiae

14

Tetrads

A four-part structure that forms during the prophase of meiosis and consists of two homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids.

15

16 Tetrads = ? chromosomes

32 chromosomes (2n)

16

what stages of meiosis will give you haploid number of chromosomes?

Telophase I, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Telophase II

17

what phases of meiosis will give you diploid number of chromosomes?

Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Anaphase II

18

Stages of mitosis in onion root tip

A image thumb
19

Stages of mitosis in onion root tip

Q image thumb

A image thumb
20

Stages of mitosis in whitefish blastula

Q image thumb

Metaphase

Anaphase - Telophase

A image thumb
21

Stage in this view of mitosis in whitefish blastula

Q image thumb

Telophase 

A image thumb
22

What are the four different types of chromosomes based on the position of the centromere?

  1. Metacentric
  2. Submetacentric
  3. Acrocentric
  4. Telocentric

A image thumb
23

Pangenesis concept

Belief that "humours" are drawn from all over the body into the gametes

24

What is preformationism?

Belief that egg or sperm contains a tiny human called a homunculus

25

What are the 6 major model organisms?

E. coli, S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, M. musculus, A. thaliana, and D. melanogaster

26

Belief that "humours" are drawn from all over the body into the gametes

Pangenesis concept

27

Belief that egg or sperm contains a tiny human called a homunculus

 Preformationism

28

What are the key components of a chromosome?

telomeres and centromere

29

What is a locus?

Position on a chromosome where a specific gene is located

30

What is a consanguineous mating?

a mating between relatives

31

What is dosage compensation?

A mechanism which inactivates all but one X chromosome in mammals

32

What is an example of a lethal allele?

The yellow coat allele in mice

33

What is a dyad?

One replicated chromosome (one pair of sister chromatids)

34

What is a homologous pair

Two chromosomes of the same type, containing copies of the same genes laid out in the same order.

35

What is a tetrad?

A homologous pair of chromosomes in the replicated form (so, 4 total chromatids)

36

Name 3 roles of genetics in society today.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of hereditary diseases
  2. Breeding plants and animals for improved production and disease resistance
  3. Producing pharmaceuticals and novel crops through genetic engineering

37

Name the 3 scientists that in 1900 individually discovered the same principles and found Mendel’s old 1866 publication.

  1. deVries
  2. Correns
  3. Tschermak

38

Name the 2 scientists that individually described the behavior of genes during cell division and laid the basis for what became the known as the chromosome theory of inheritance. 

Sutton and Boveri in 1902

39

Sutton and Boveri - 1902

The 2 scientists that individually described the behavior of genes during cell division and laid the basis for what became the known as the chromosome theory of inheritance. 

40

Who was the First one to see cells with microscope and year?

Robert Hooke 1665

41

Robert Hook 1665

First one to see cells with microscope

42

What are the three basic concepts (or parts) of “cell theory?”

I. Cells are the units of structure (building blocks) of all animals and plants.
II. Cells are the smallest unit of function in all animals and plants
III. Cells originate only from pre-existing cells by cell division.

43

James Watson and Francis Crick contributions

They described the three dimensional structure of DNA

44

Who described the three dimensional structure of DNA?

James Watson and Francis Crick: 

45

Who developed the polymerase chain reaction, a technique for quickly amplifying tiny amounts of DNA. This is the technique for the basis of numerous molecular analysis?

Kary Mullis

46

Kary Mullis contributions

Developed the polymerase chain reaction, a technique for quickly amplifying tiny amounts of DNA. This is the technique for the basis of numerous molecular analysis.

47

Who proposed the cell theory and in what year?

Schleiden and Schwann in 1839

48

On the Origin of Species

Darwin 1859

49

Who published experiments in plant hybrids and year?

Mendel 1866

50

Outline the relations between genes, DNA, and chromosomes.

Genes are composed of DNA nucleotide sequence and are located at specific positions in chromosomes.

51

List 3 fundamental events that must take place in cell reproduction

  1. The Cells genetic information must be copied
  2. The 2 copies of the genetic information must be separated from one another
  3. The cell must divide.

52

State and explain the law of segregation and its importance 

  • Organisms possess 2 alleles for any particular characteristic.
  • The alleles separate in the formation of gametes. One allele goes into each gamete.

53

State the law of independent assortment 

  • Alleles at different loci segregate independently of one another.
  • In other words when these 2 alleles separate, their separation is independent of the separation of alleles at other loci.

54

Transmission genetics

  • Also known as classical genetics. Studies the basic principles of heredity and how traits are passed from one generation to the next.
  • Studies the relation between chromosomes and heredity, the arrangement of genes on chromosomes, and gene mapping. 

55

 Molecular genetics 

  • Is concerned with the chemical nature of the gene itself.
  • It studies how the genetic information is encoded, replicated, and expressed (replication, transcription, and translation).
  • Its focus is the gene, its structure, organization, and function.

56

Population genetics 

  • Studies the genetic composition of groups of individual members of the same species and how that composition changes over time and their geographic space. 

57

Compare and contrast Gene and allele

  • Gene is section of DNA that determines or controls a certain trait.
  • Genes can take two or more alternative forms; an allele is one of these forms or variation of a gene.
  • Examples: Gene (eye color, blood type, skin color), Allele (blue eyes, green eyes, type A blood, black skin, white skin)

58

Compare and contrast DNA and chromosome 

  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is made up of two strands that are intertwined together.
  • DNA is made up of four similar bases (A adenine, G guanine, C cytosine, T thymine).
  • Genes are packaged in bundles called chromosomes.
  • Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (for a total of 46).
  • When cells get ready to divide chromatin organizes itself into chromosomes. Each chromosome contains a DNA molecule, and each DNA molecule is made up of many genes- individual segments of DNA that contain the instructions needed to direct the synthesis of a protein with a specific function.

59

 Determine the diploid numbers of 16 tetrads at metaphase I

32

60

What is the diploid number of a cell? 

Example

  • The diploid number of a cell is the number of chromosomes in the diploid cell
  • Humans have 46 chromosomes in their diploid cells