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1

Transactional model of communication

Communication is simultaneous.
ex. You can be giving a speech, but notice the nonverbal messages coming from your audience

2

Communication

The process of making sense out of the world and sharing that sense with others and by creating meaning through verbal and nonverbal messages.

3

Difference between leading and managing

Leading: influencing others to achieve goals through verbal and nonverbal messages.
Managing: organizing and delegating. Can be a leader too but leaders are not necessarily good managers

4

six leadership approaches

trait
functional
styles
situation
transformational
servant

5

Trait Approach

good leaders have specific qualities or characteristics like:
* Intelligence
* Confidence
* Social Skills
* Honesty
* Being forward-thinking

6

Functional Approach

leaders identify key task functions and process functions that need to be performed in a group

7

Task Functions

Behaviors that help get work done (agenda)

8

Process Function

Behaviors that help maintain a harmonious climate. ( manage conflict, encouraging members)

9

Style Approach

Leaders need to consider many factors when making decisions such as culture, time limitations, group member personalities
* leader who adapts to the situations

10

Transformational Approach

leader that influences people to see the future in a new way. "transform people's thoughts'
*good at building and sharing
*good at listening

11

Servant Leadership Approach

a. Views themselves as being of service to the group or team
b. Works to meet the needs of others while accomplishing a task
c. Is motivated to do good, high concern for others
d. Key actions are listening, empathy, and healing
e. Use persuasion to incite action, not demands

12

What are the social styles

Assertiveness: one's capacity to make requests, actively disagree, express positive and negative feelings, and stand up for themselves without attacking others.
Responsiveness: ones capacity to be sensitive to the communication of others be seen as a good listener and make others comfortable in communication.

13

4 Quadrants of social style

Amiable
Analytic
Driver
Expressive

14

Amiable

*High responsive and low assertiveness
*relationship specialist; supportive or helpful roles

15

Analytical

*Low responsiveness and low assertiveness
*Technical fields like science
*higher anxiety about communications

16

Driver

*Low Responsiveness and High assertiveness
*Control specialists; they enjoy working in leadership
*business owners, top managers, administration

17

Expressive

*High responsiveness and high assertiveness
* Social specialists. They use communication skills to gain recognition and attention.
* drawn to sales and entertainment

18

Classical Managerial Approach

○ Assumes that workers are motivated by rewards and punishment
○ Includes theories that emphasize structure, rules, and control
○ Communication is typically directed from the top down. (Hierarchical, clear chain of command)

19

Human Relations Managerial Approach

○ Assumes productivity will increase if workers are not only happy, but are also giver proper working conditions
○ If you take of your workers, they will work harder and produce more.
○ Time Studies were looking at output and productivity

20

Human Resources Managerial Approach

○ Assumes that the ability for form relationships on the job is more effective than economic incentives
○ View employees as a resource that can enhance team performance
○ Gives employees more control over process, partnership with management and participation in decision-making and problem-solving responsibilities
○ Emphasizes camaraderie, praise and recognition from supervisors

21

Organizational Culture

the learned pattern of beliefs, values, assumptions, rules, and norms that are shared by people in the organization.

what REALLY happens at work
all company's are different
communication creates culture and culture influences communications.

22

Verbal Communication

Messages that use words to create meaning (written Or spoken)

23

Non-Verbal Communication

are visual and audible symbols that do not rely on words or language to create meaning

24

Descriptive Language

Conveys assertiveness by:
1) Describing other's behavior ( what you see/hear)
2) Describing your goals/needs
3) Describing consequences

25

How do you communicate a clear verbal message

Describe rather than evaluate others
• Describe your feelings and/or other's behaviors by using "I" statements instead of evaluation statements
• "I" messages take ownership of feelings; helps prevent defensiveness in others
• Evaluating messages attack others' character and make people feel judged

26

Guidelines for using text messages in the workplace

* Don't use texts to convey important information
* Don't text anything confidential
*Introduce yourself

27

Non-verbal codes/ categories

Appearance
vocalics
facial expressions
Kinesics
Space/proxemics
time/chronemics
touch/haptics
physical environment

28

Difference between listening and hearing

Hearing: is the physiological process of decoding sounds.
Listening: is psychological process that involves receiving, constructing meaning from ,and responding to verbal and nonverbal messages

29

5 Steps of the listening process

○ Selecting
○ Attending
○ Understanding
○ Remembering
○ Responding

30

How do you listen effectively?

STOP: turn off competing messages
LOOK: Look at the person speaking, look for nonverbal cues
LISTEN: Listen for major ideas, details, details with the main ideas.