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Kristiania Bohème

-Critical of social inequality
-Interested in free love and equality
-Turned away Christianity


What kind of art does Edvard Munch want to create based on what he wrote (St. Cloud Diary)?

He wants to create a reality of his emotions.


What does Edvard Munch not want in his art?
What does he want in his art?

He doesn't want representational art. Doesn't want to simply paint a chair, or someone knitting.
He wants to depict emotion, ex: people who breathe, and feel, suffer and love.


When does Edvard Munch want to display his art?

Right away, in the present moment. Right when he experiences it. Wants to capture the present moment.


Who painted The Scream?

Edvard Munch


What is Expressionism?

-Looked inward to a world of emotional and psychological states rather than outward to a world of fleeting light and shadow.
-Importance of color in expressing emotion.
-Influence of Freud and theories regarding unconsciousness.
-Focus on individual interior, emotional and psychological states.


What does/did it mean to be modern?

-Free from the past/rejecting the past.
-Sense that the present is moving swiftly.
-Technology is advancing.
-The "new."


The Austro-Hungarian Empire was also called ...

The Habsburg Empire.


What is a constitutional monarchy?

Monarchy exists, but still exists a social contract. Expanded powers of the middle class.


What were some enlightenment ideals?

-The idea that individual people have rights.
-Rule of law.
-Social contract.
-Social order - order is important.
Mind over body.
Social progress through science, education and work.


In 1900, Liberals fall from power. This results in...

-Austrian's rise to power.
-Rise of nationalism.
-Trying to spread all German culture.
-Everyone trying to spread their culture.
-Setting the stage of the first world war.
-Ethnic tension between countries fuels war as well.


First decade of the 20th century...

-Art and music still retained.
-World is seen as chaotic.
-Austrians turn inward to themselves.
-Try to express themselves in art.


-Born during enlightenment period.
-Viennese artist.
-Comes from lower class.
-Explodes ant pile to impress girls.

Oskar Kokoschka.


Which artist drew, The Dreaming Boys?

Oskar Kokoschka.


Why would, The Dreaming Boys, be controversial?

-They are naked.
-Are they both girls? Both boys?
-They look the same, no clear markers of what exactly they are.
-Where are they? What are they doing?


Kokoschka wants to paint where he can express...

people's inner psychological states.


What is tonality?

-Music organized around a center pitch.
-Organized around keys, around a particular note.


What are consonance and dissonance?

-Consonance: pleasant, notes go well.
-Dissonance: Hard sounding, music clashes.


Harmony creates a ______ ___ _____. It will bring you back from where you ended.
_______ provides closure.

desire for closure. Cadence.


Schoenberg's critique of Tonality:

1) Hierarchy vs. egalitarianism (true equality).
2) Tonality creates an illusion of social order.


What did Schoenberg want from his music?

-Schoenberg wanted his music to reflect social disorder.
-Schoenberg wanted to create music where the world is disordered, chaotic, expresses real/true feelings of anxiety, depression and gloom.
-Wanted you to feel uncomfortable.


Around 1908, Schoenberg was influenced by ________ and _____.

Psychoanalysis and Freud.


What were Schoenberg's musical Innovations?

"Emancipation of Dissonance." - Music can stand alone by itself, doesn't need a closure.


What is the conscious?

-What we are immediately thinking about.
-What you're aware of right now.


What is the preconscious?

-The part of your brain where you can recall something from the past. You may not be thinking about it right now, but you can easily recall it.


What is the unconscious?

-Habitual actions that you don't think about doing. Ex: breathing.


What is the Id?

-The pleasure principle.
-The animal instincts of a person.
-What you want to do instead of what you should do.


What is the ego?

-The reality principle.
-Judgement calls that deal with your reality.


What are the six steps to Hysteria?

1) "An un-pleasurable experience"
-The women had an un-pleasureable experience b/c they had bad sexual experiences.
2) "Overwhelms the ego"
-Lose a sense of reality, have trouble making responsible decisions.
3) "Gaps in the psyche"
-The mind will try to blank out things that are painful and unbearable.
4) Repression/attacks
5) "Boundary idea"
-Something innocuous and innocent can bring these memories back.
6) Trauma


What is the cause of hysteria?

The effect of repression. It's all contained in your mind. It's the return of the memories that causes hysteria.