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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (73):
1

August Krogh

Developed the function of capillary circulation as a gas analysis system

2

A.V. Hill (F)

Credited to be the "father of exercise physiology"

3

A.V. Hill

Awarded Nobel prize in 1922 for measuring oxygen intake both resting and exercise

4

True or False You automatically begin using the amount of oxygen needed from rest to exercise?

False

5

Who developed the Harvard fatigue lab?

Bruce Dill

6

Who studied the effects of exercising in high heat?

Bruce Dill

7

Who is know for endurance performance training?

David Costill

8

David Costill

Oversaw the human performance lab

9

Threshold

The moment something begins to increase

10

A study about one individual

Case study

11

Case controlled study

When one group has a disease and the other does not

12

Cross sectional

Study looking at one specific moment in time

13

Calorimetry

The process of measuring heat/energy/calories by measuring the bonds that are broken

14

Calorimetry

Used to measure the amount of energy needed to change the temporary water by 1 degree Celsius

15

What does direct Calorimetry measure?

Amount of heat produced by a person

16

Indirect Calorimetry

The oxygen consumption to indirectly measure the heat production

17

How much oxygen is in room air? CO2?

20.93%

.03%

18

What is a typical energy expenditure range f VO2?

3.5-70ml/kg/min

19

What is the typical energy expenditure range of VO2 in METs?

1-20

20

How much oxygen is required at all times?

3.5ml/kg/min

21

True or False?
In order for something to be considered linear, the rate has to be constant

True

22

How energy efficient are humans

20-25%

23

When don't you measure efficiency?

When you run, because you are moving up and down

24

What is used to measure running efficiency?

Economy

25

Flow in exchange of energy within a living system

Bioenergetics

26

The sum of chemical reactions in the body

Metabolism

27

What is an anabolic reaction?

It is putting molecules together

Example:photosynthesis which stores energy for later, building muscles, growing bones

28

What is a catabolic reaction?

Breaking down molecules

Example: breaking down glucose

29

What is an example of bioenergetics?

Converting micronutrients into energy (fats, lipids, carbohydrates)

30

How is mechanical work generated?

Muscle contraction that causes movement
Example: bench press

31

Chemical work

-Helps complete mechanical growth

-helps with normal function and maintenance of cell

-helps muscle size increase

32

Endergonic

Requires energy to be added to the system as a result of the reaction

Example: joining monosaccharides-glucose+fructose=sucrose

33

Coupled reaction

A type of reaction that uses energy from one reaction and uses it on another?

Example: loading a mouse trap and trapping a mouse

34

Enzyme

Highly specific and large protein catalysts that change the rate of chemical reactions without being consumed changed

35

Temperature and PH

Two factors that optimize enzyme activity

36

Monosaccharide-located in blood

Where are single sugars located

37

Olisacharide

2+sugars

Example: sucrose

38

Polysaccharide-located in the muscle/liver

10+sugars

39

Fatty acids

Primary storage site and energy source

40

Phospholipids

Protective layer not used as an energy source

41

Most common type of steroid in the body

Cholesterol (fat) needed to synthesize hormones

42

What do amino acids do? Are they fats, carbs, proteins?

Needed to build and maintain muscle. Proteins

43

Energy system

#1 phosphagens

Stored ATP (1-2 sec) & ATP-PC (2-10sec)

44

Energy system

#2 Non-oxidative pathway:

glycolysis (10sec-2min)

45

Oxidative pathway

Using carbs and fats
(2min-infinity)

46

What percent of energy comes from each source

Stored ATP:
Creatine Phosphate:
ADP:

Stored ATP: 15-20%
Creatine phosphate: 70%
ADP: less than 10%

47

Glycolysis

Breakdown of glucose occurring in the cytoplasm in nearly every cell of the body

48

What is the cause of glycolysis

Demand of ATP

49

What is the net yield of 1 glucose molecule

2ATP, 2Pyruvate/lactate, 2NADH

50

What is the primary macronutrients used to produce ATP at rest?

Carbs then fats

51

True or False
If you maintain the same intensity, the required amount of oxygen will not change?

True

52

What order do the ATP sources get paid back

In the order they were used

53

Describe excess post-exercise oxygen consumption

EPOC is the combination of a rapid and slow component replenish muscle and blood O2 stores. It is describing of the O2 debt that happens when someone stops working out but still needs an elevated oxygen consumption than what they would need at rest

54

OBLA

Onset of blood lactate accumulation. The point where you see the elevation of lactate

55

Respiratory exchange ratio

VCO2(produced)/VO2 (consumed) Range 7-1.0

56

If your respiratory exchange ratio is 1 what does that mean about when you ate last? What about .7?

Close to 1 means you just ate close to .7 means you would be fasting

57

What does the enzyme ATPase do?

With the use of a water molecule it breaks down ATP to ADP & inorganic phosphate. (Stored ATP)

58

Creatine kinase

Converts phosphocreatine and ADP to ATP and creatine (creatine phosphate energy source)

59

Hexokinase

Uses 1 ATP to convert glucose to glucose-6-phosphate

60

Phosphofructokinase (PFK)

Uses an ATP to convert fructose 6 phosphate to 1 fructose 6-phosphate

61

Lactate dehydrogenase

Used to breakdown pyruvate. Produces lactate with the use of 2 NADH

62

Phosphorylase

Converts glycogen to glucose 6 phosphate

63

Pyruvate dehydrogenase

Step one of oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate oxidation which converts pyruvate+CoA+NAD to CO2 + acetyl CoA+NADH

64

Citrate synthase

Used to break down oxaloacetate to produce citrate

65

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Break down isocitrate to produce alpha ketogluterate

66

Succinate dehydrogenase

Break down succinate to produce fumarate

67

ATP synthase

Converts ADP+Pi to ATP during electron transport chain

68

Efficiency

Total amount of work

69

Economy

Amount of oxygen consumed

70

Is glycolysis aerobic or anerobic

Anerobic

71

Is the Kreb cycle and electron transport chain aerobic or anaerobic

Aerobic

72

What is the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2) for college males and females

Males 44.6
Females 38

73

True or false
Acetyl CoA needed to start the Kreb cycle

True