Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (73):
Developed the function of capillary circulation as a gas analysis system
A.V. Hill (F)
Credited to be the "father of exercise physiology"
Awarded Nobel prize in 1922 for measuring oxygen intake both resting and exercise
True or False You automatically begin using the amount of oxygen needed from rest to exercise?
Who developed the Harvard fatigue lab?
Who studied the effects of exercising in high heat?
Who is know for endurance performance training?
Oversaw the human performance lab
The moment something begins to increase
A study about one individual
Case controlled study
When one group has a disease and the other does not
Study looking at one specific moment in time
The process of measuring heat/energy/calories by measuring the bonds that are broken
Used to measure the amount of energy needed to change the temporary water by 1 degree Celsius
What does direct Calorimetry measure?
Amount of heat produced by a person
The oxygen consumption to indirectly measure the heat production
How much oxygen is in room air? CO2?
What is a typical energy expenditure range f VO2?
What is the typical energy expenditure range of VO2 in METs?
How much oxygen is required at all times?
True or False?
In order for something to be considered linear, the rate has to be constant
How energy efficient are humans
When don't you measure efficiency?
When you run, because you are moving up and down
What is used to measure running efficiency?
Flow in exchange of energy within a living system
The sum of chemical reactions in the body
What is an anabolic reaction?
It is putting molecules together
Example:photosynthesis which stores energy for later, building muscles, growing bones
What is a catabolic reaction?
Breaking down molecules
Example: breaking down glucose
What is an example of bioenergetics?
Converting micronutrients into energy (fats, lipids, carbohydrates)
How is mechanical work generated?
Muscle contraction that causes movement
Example: bench press
-Helps complete mechanical growth
-helps with normal function and maintenance of cell
-helps muscle size increase
Requires energy to be added to the system as a result of the reaction
Example: joining monosaccharides-glucose+fructose=sucrose
A type of reaction that uses energy from one reaction and uses it on another?
Example: loading a mouse trap and trapping a mouse
Highly specific and large protein catalysts that change the rate of chemical reactions without being consumed changed
Temperature and PH
Two factors that optimize enzyme activity
Monosaccharide-located in blood
Where are single sugars located
Polysaccharide-located in the muscle/liver
Primary storage site and energy source
Protective layer not used as an energy source
Most common type of steroid in the body
Cholesterol (fat) needed to synthesize hormones
What do amino acids do? Are they fats, carbs, proteins?
Needed to build and maintain muscle. Proteins
Stored ATP (1-2 sec) & ATP-PC (2-10sec)
#2 Non-oxidative pathway:
Using carbs and fats
What percent of energy comes from each source
Stored ATP: 15-20%
Creatine phosphate: 70%
ADP: less than 10%
Breakdown of glucose occurring in the cytoplasm in nearly every cell of the body
What is the cause of glycolysis
Demand of ATP
What is the net yield of 1 glucose molecule
2ATP, 2Pyruvate/lactate, 2NADH
What is the primary macronutrients used to produce ATP at rest?
Carbs then fats
True or False
If you maintain the same intensity, the required amount of oxygen will not change?
What order do the ATP sources get paid back
In the order they were used
Describe excess post-exercise oxygen consumption
EPOC is the combination of a rapid and slow component replenish muscle and blood O2 stores. It is describing of the O2 debt that happens when someone stops working out but still needs an elevated oxygen consumption than what they would need at rest
Onset of blood lactate accumulation. The point where you see the elevation of lactate
Respiratory exchange ratio
VCO2(produced)/VO2 (consumed) Range 7-1.0
If your respiratory exchange ratio is 1 what does that mean about when you ate last? What about .7?
Close to 1 means you just ate close to .7 means you would be fasting
What does the enzyme ATPase do?
With the use of a water molecule it breaks down ATP to ADP & inorganic phosphate. (Stored ATP)
Converts phosphocreatine and ADP to ATP and creatine (creatine phosphate energy source)
Uses 1 ATP to convert glucose to glucose-6-phosphate
Uses an ATP to convert fructose 6 phosphate to 1 fructose 6-phosphate
Used to breakdown pyruvate. Produces lactate with the use of 2 NADH
Converts glycogen to glucose 6 phosphate
Step one of oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate oxidation which converts pyruvate+CoA+NAD to CO2 + acetyl CoA+NADH
Used to break down oxaloacetate to produce citrate
Break down isocitrate to produce alpha ketogluterate
Break down succinate to produce fumarate
Converts ADP+Pi to ATP during electron transport chain
Total amount of work
Amount of oxygen consumed
Is glycolysis aerobic or anerobic
Is the Kreb cycle and electron transport chain aerobic or anaerobic
What is the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2) for college males and females