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1

Process of grouping things, not natural (humans have done), grouping that has meaning towards us

Systematics

2

Collection of systematic groups

Taxonomy

3

"The beginning of wisdom...

is to call things by their right name" Confucius

4

Grouping by genetic similarity

phyletic systematics

5

Grouping by phenotype

Phenetic systematics

6

5 phenotypic groups of bacteria

Morphology
Gram stain
Respiration
Metabolism
Serology

7

Characteristics of gram positive bacteria

purple in color (positive for holding dye)
Cell wall of thick peptidoglycan
Only PM, NO outer membrane
Surface proteins/lipids can be antiphagocytic
Surface proteins can act as virulence factors

8

Characteristics of gram negative bacteria

Stain pink in color
Thin peptidoglycan cell wall
Complete outer membrane including LPS (core polysaccharide plus lipid A aka ENDOTOXIN)

9

How do bacteria cause disease (i.e. bacterial pathogenesis)

Establish a focus of infection
Spread to adjacent tissues
Cause change from normal health or function

10

Ability to cause disease

virulence

11

Produced by bacteria that help eliminate competition/produced by microorganisms

antibiotics

12

Some molecule that produced by bacteria that is released and carried by circulatory and lymph system to other places

exotoxin

13

Proteins that are immunogenic and toxic in small doses

exotoxins

14

Non-immunogenic, toxic in high doses, heat-stable
Cause indirect systemic effects

endotoxins

15

Gram-positive bacteria that is yellow in color, round, and bunch in clusters
Likes dry environments
Wide host range
Opportunistic, can cause mixed disease processes
Normally on skin

Staphylococcus

16

Exotoxins whose target is mucosal epithelial cells of the gut

enterotoxins

17

Two strains of Steptococcus that we need to know

S. Equi zooepidemicus (has large host range)
S.equi equi (subsp. that affect horses)

18

What gram positive bacteria is naturally restricted to GI tract, grows in chains and looks like it has a band in the middle
Wide host range

Enterococcus

19

Bacteria that is very small, disease presentation is like staph/strep and opportunistic
Livestock commonly affected
Traumatic or opportunistic lesions
Mastitis

Arcanobacterium and Trueperella

20

Pyogenic, suppurative lesions
Mastitis, strangles, arthritis, septicemia

Streptococcus

21

Gram- positive bacteria that grows in chains, round, and likes moist environments
Wide host range
Wide range of symptoms (pneumonia, septicemia, mastitis, arthritis)
Causes hemolysis
Vaccinate horses

Streptococcus

22

Diarrhea, multidrug resistance

enterococcus

23

Pyogenic, suppurative lesions
Mastitis, lymphadenitis

Arcanobacter and Trueperella

24

Endospores; anthrax
acute onset

Bacillus

25

Pyogenic, suppurative lesions
Caseous lymphadenitis, pyelonephritis

Corynebacter

26

Septicemia, neurologic signs, abortion

Listeria

27

What is the vaccination for bacillus called?

sterne

28

Causes lumpy granuloma lesions (think about the goat head that had a swollen spot on jaw or pigeon breast on horse)

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
(gram positive)

29

Maybe acute, chronic, or asymptomatic
Cutaneous, septicemia, arthritis, endocarditis
Diamond skin disease
Vaccinate pigs

Erysipelothrix

30

Gram positive bacteria that has urease and infects bladder and kidneys of cows

Corynebacterium renale

31

Causes white diamond disease in pigs

Erysipelothrix

32

What gram-positive bacteria likes cold temperatures and is spread orally, usually through contaminated food.
Can cause silent infection or neurological manifestation (tongue out)
Most are asymptomatic, GI symptoms

Listeria

33

Soil gram-positive dwelling bacteria that causes foal pneumonia
Resistant to beta lactams
Can cause mild infection in adult horses

Rhodococcus

34

2 types of Clostridium disease categories

Histotoxic
Neurotoxic

35

Causes enterotoxemia, wound infection (cause of gas gangrene)

C. perfringes

36

Continuous contractions, blocks inhibition of muscle

Clostridium tetanus

37

Gram-positive bacteria that forms endospores and is a STRICT ANAEROBE

Clostridium

38

Paralysis of muscle, blocks excitation of muscle
Flaccid paralysis
Fatal outcome if not treated right away

Clostridium botulism

39

Gram-Positive filamentous bacteria that is normally present in the oral cavity
Get from licking a wound
Grass awns that animal steps on
Can get lumpy jaw in cows

Actinomyces bovis (cows), A. viscosus

40

Gram-positive environmental filamentous bacteria
Causes "rain scald" or standing in muddy soil all the time

Dermatophilus

41

Suppurative foal pneumonia

Rhodococcus

42

Endospores
Neurotoxic: tetanus and botulism
Histotoxic: necrosis (blackleg, etc)
Can hear crepitus

Clostridium

43

Pyogranulomas, “lumpy jaw”

Actinomyces

44

Rain scald, “strawberry” footrot, lumpy wool

Dermatophilus

45

Causitive agent of stangles

S. equi equi

46

Acute multiple organ dysfunction, edema, shock
Can have pulmonary and cutaneous manifestation
Lives in soil
Grazers/livestock and horses commonly affected
Gram-positive

Bacillus

47

Gram-positive bacteria that causes rashy looking disease of skin or pelt, can cause arthritis, septicemia
Causes DIC
Broad host range

Erysipelothrix

48

Gram positive that causes normal flora imbalance and diarrhea
Antibiotic resistant
anaerobe

Clostridium difficile

49

Pyogenic, suppurative lesions
Mastitis, chronic granuloma, pyoderma

staph

50

Gram negative bacteria that do not produce oxidase and are enterbacteria

Enterobacteriaceae, e.g. E.coli, Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella

51

Enterobacteria that causes dysentery in primates

shigella

52

E. coli that attaches to the small intestine

enteropathogenic

53

E. coli that attaches to the large intestine

enterohemmorrhagic

54

A lot of subspecies
NOT just a diarrheal disease, can turn up anywhere!! and produces septicemia, arthritis, pneumonia, parathyphoid fever, joint disease
Can cause late abortion
Multiple antibiotic resistance
Oxidase negative

Salmonella

55

Part of normal flora; use of antibiotics is controversial
Causes entero and non-toxigenic diarrhea, invasive disease, endotoxemia, opportunistic, mastitis, CAN produce systemic disease
Range of hosts
Spread by fecal contamination
Oxidase negative
Vaccinate cattle

Escherichia
(E. coli)

56

Enterobacteria
Wide host range
F-O transmission
Lymphadentitis, gastroenteritis, septicemia
Oxidase negative

Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. paratuberculosis

57

Septicemia, bubonic or pneumonic plague
Most common in cats
Vector transmission by fleas
Oxidase negative

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis

58

Enteritis, septicemia, toxemia, UTI, mastitis

E. coli

59

enteritis, septicemia, toxemia

Salmonella

60

Enteritis, septicemia, plague

yersinia

61

enteritis, septicemia in primates

Shigella

64

Normal flora in upper respiratory tract/oral cavity
Can cause disease when spread elsewhere
Oxidase positive
Relatively delicate and do not do well in outside environment

Family Pasteurellaceae
Pasteurella
Bibersteinia
Mannhemia
Actinobacillus
Haemophilius
Histophilus

65

Dependent on iron, so culture on chocolate agar
Dependent on close interaction with host
Oxidase positive

Haemophilus

66

Causes avian cholera, picture of bird having swelling under the beak due to hair going everywhere

Pasteurella
Bibersteinia

67

Causes meningitis in pigs, fibrin crust forming, causes peritonitis/pericarditis, kidney petchia, polyserositis (joint)

Haemophilus parasuis
"GLASSERS disease": multi system disease of serosal surface

68

Some species have broad host range, others are specific
Part of normal flora
Colonies look star shaped with a radiating pattern
Wound infections
granulomas in tongue
Pneumonia/septicemia
Gram negative
Oxidase positive
Vaccinate pigs

Actinobacillus

69

Dependent on iron, so culture on chocolate agar
Dependent on close interaction with host
Oxidase positive
Vaccinate birds

Haemophilus

70

Causes conjunctivitis in dogs and cats
Oxidase positive and Gram negative
Iron dependent

H. felis

71

Pneumonia, septicemia with neurologic sings (Glassers disease), polyserositis, respiratory, conjunctivitis

haemophilus

72

Septicemia, TEME, respiratory

Histophilus

73

Shipping fever (viral infection with 1 or 2 opportunistic bacteria)
Vaccinate cattle

Mannhemia

74

What two bacteria cause atrophic rhinitis in the pig

Bordetella and Pasterulla

75

Severe inflammation of endothelial cells in the circulatory system leads to endotoxemia called tularemia
Acute and profound
Hepatitis and splenitis in rabbits
Can be fatal
Arthropod vector (ticks)
Seasonal flares
Small rodents and white tailed deer are reservoir

Francisella
note gram negative

76

Effects livestock
Oxidase and gram positive
Pnemonia, septicemia, meningoencephalitis, abortion
Thromboembolic menigoencephalitis (TEME)
Vaccinate cattle

Histophilus somni
aka sleepiness
Can remind you of Listeria

77

Warm, moist environments
Green color, "sweet" smell
pyoderma, mastitis, can really pop up anywhere
Multidrug resistance

Pneudomonas
note: gram negative

78

Warm, wet environments
Wide host range
lymphangitis
pneumonia
subclinical to acutely fatal disseminating pyogranulomatous disease
Gram negative

Burkholderia

(looks like Strangles)

79

subclinical to acutely fatal disseminating pyogranulomatous disease that can affect many other species besides horses

disease is called melidosis
bacterial agent: Burkholderia

80

Cows
"pink eye"
Transmission through face flies or other fomites
Vaccinate

Moraxella
Note: gram negative

81

Horses!
Sexually transmitted
purulent endometritis
contagious equine metritis

Taylorella

82

wide host range
upper respiratory
pneumonia
coryza
Gram negative
Vaccination

Bordetella

83

looks like it has "long, soft wavy hair"
"strawberry" diarrhea
Common in dogs, cats, pigs, birds
Causes 1/3 of diarrhea in livestock
Gram negative

Brachyspira

84

Sexually transmitted
can become opportunistic due to it being resistant to macrophage phagocytosis
Wide host range
Abortion
Inflammatory disease (even in joints)
Reproductive disease (e.g. swollen testes/orchitis)
Gram negative
elk and bison thought to carry
Vaccinate cattle

Brucella

85

Campylobacter species in sheep and cattle
Causes abortion
More common in small ruminants, often a frank abortion (know the animal aborted)
Vaccinate

C. fetus fetus

86

Curvy, hair at one end
normal flora or can be transmitted after gestation from mother
wide host range
gastritis
hepatitis
Gram negative

Helicobacter

87

very severe gastroenteritis in dogs and cats and pigs
Spiral
Gram negative
Vaccinate

Campylobacter jejuni

88

Gram negative that causes SILENT early stage abortion in cows
More often in large ruminants
Vaccinate

Campylobacter fetus venerealis

89

lyme disease

B. burgdoferi

90

Borrelia strain that affects birds
Splenomegaly

B. anserina

91

Proliferative enteritis (ileitis) and "wet tail" (hemorrhagic enteritis with rectal prolapse)
Wide host range
Diarrhea in pigs
Gram negative
Curvy bacteria
vaccinate pigs

Lawsonia

92

Upper respiratory tract complex, coryza
tracheobronchitis, bronchopneumonia

Bordetella

93

tularemia, lymphadenopathy, septicemia

Francisella

94

pink eye conjunctivitis

Moraxella

95

water loving (urine transmission)
curly bacteria
Wide host range
septicemia
Uveitis (can be seen in the eye)
hepatic
renal disease
late-term abortion
vaccinate

Leptospira
The uveitis is called moon blindness

96

multiple opportunistic infections
gram negative

Pseudomonas

97

Glanders, meliodosis

Burkholderia

98

Contagious equine enteritis

Taylorella

99

septicemia, neurologic signs, abortion

Brucella

100

Diarrhea, endometritis /placentitis, abortion

campylobacter

101

Proliferative enteritis (ileitis)

Lawsonia

102

Gastritis/hepatitis
gram negative

helicobacter

103

vector transmission, ectoparasite control
lymphadenopathy, arthritis, neuropathy

Borrelia

104

septicemia, hepatic/renal disease
abortion, infertility

Lepto

105

The bacteria that does not Gram stain and cell wall is made up of a waxy substance (2 bacteria)

Mycobacterium
Nocardia
(hard for immune system or antibiotics to attack and stain using acid fast)

106

Progressive chronic disease
Wide host range
Typically soil dwelling
Tuberculosis, "lepriod" syndrome "Johne's disease"
Respiratory, inhaled
Thought to have a wildlife reservoir

Mycobacterium
(note acid fast staining)

107

Star like branching appearance
Soil dwelling
Transmission is due from inhalation of soil or dust
Draining tracts, abscess, effusion,mastitis
Typical dog collar causing lesion that becomes infected and causes draining tracts and abscesses
Not easily treated

Nocardia (note acid fast staining)

108

Abscesses, footrot

Anaerobes:
Dichelobacter (footvax available)
Fusobacterium
bacteroides (in gut)

109

No cell wall
Cannot stand outside outside environment
Hang out on mucosal or serosal surfaces, even in joints
Fairly host specific BUT can infect any animal (even invertebrates)!
Vaccinate chicken and cows

Mycoplasma

110

Really not treatable
Can cause conjunctivitis, pneumonia, arthritis
Can hangout in erythrocytes and normally do not cause disease but can result in anemia when becomes immune suppressed
Important livestock and avian pathogen

Mycoplasma

111

Name the bacteria and species
That is an obligate intracellular bacteria of erythrocytes
Gram negative
Infects cows, cause anemia
Dx: Wright Geimsa stain
Tick vector

Anaplasma marginale

112

Name the bacteria and species that is an obligate intracellular bacteria of neutrophils
Infects mammals
Causes systemic signs, non specific
Lyme like symptoms in dogs
wax and wane symptoms
Treated with tetracyclines
Tick vector

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

113

Name the bacteria and species that is an obligate intracellular bacteria of platelets
Causes infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia
Will affect dogs, cats, and humans

Anaplasma platys

114

Intracellular bacteria of monocytes
Transmitted by brown dog tick
General signs of weakness and thrombocytopenia
Host: dog
Tx: tetracyclines

Ehrilichia canis
(can use snap test to dx)

115

Intraceullar bacteria of granulocytes
Host: dogs
Transmitted by lone star tick
Nonspecific lyme-like signs

E. ewingii

116

Intracellular bacteria of horses
Can cause severe diarrhea, can have edema
Potomac horse fever
Bacteria likes wet environment
Transmission: ingestion flukes or insects

Neoricketssia

117

chronic progressive diseases
asymptomatic/granulomatous disease
Enteritis

Mycobacterium

118

Soil sporophyte
Canine systemic infections
Bovine mastitis

Nocardia

119

Host specificity is important
May be acute, chronic, or asymptomatic
Wax and wane because it is mostly in the hose taking care of the infection
Primarily mucosal/serous trophic
Conjunctivitis, respiratory, mastitis, arthritis, genital tract

Mycoplasma

120

Obligate intracellular vector-borne pathogens
Often life long infections
Target cell determines disease
Treatments: doxy, oxytetracycline
Anticipates immune suppression or secondary infectious
(3 of them)

Anaplasma
Ehrichlia
Neorickettsia

121

Elementary bodies are the infectious units
Psittacosis, feline conjunctivitis/pneumonitis, livestock placentitis/abortion
Dx: serology, cytology, molecular methods
Control through quarantine and sanitation
Tx: tetracyclines
Zoonotic potential

Chlamydia

122

Obligate intracellular gram negative
CAN be present outside environment
Contains lipopolysacchrides NOT peptidoglycan
Usually asymptomatic
Spread is by direct contact or aerosolis
Fairly host specific, but affects range of hosts

Family Chlamydidae

123

Causes gradually marked hepatitis and splenitis in birds
Obligate intracellular gram negative

Chlamydia psittaci

124

Elementary bodies are the infectious units
Psittacosis, feline conjunctivitis/pneumonitis, livestock placentitis/abortion
Dx: serology, cytology, molecular methods
Control through quarantine and sanitation
Tx: tetracyclines
Zoonotic potential
Vx for cats, but not really effective

Chlamydia

125

Ezoonotic ovine abortion during late pregnancy
Occurs in small ruminants and swine
Zoonotic
Obligate intracellular

Chlamydia abortus
(reminds you of Camplyobacteria, slightly of Brucella or Salmonella)

126

Sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis
Multiple host species
enteritis or arthritis in swine
Obligate intraceulluar

Chylamydia percorum

127

Swollen paravertebral ganglia of invertebrates
Can see mass from eye
Zoonotic

Brucella

128

Wasting away/diarrhea in ruminants
ileitis
chronic, slowly progressing disease
infected lymph nodes along GI tract

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
aka Johnes disease
(culling is really not an option)

129

Pneumonia
Slowly progressing, chronic granulomatous disease
Calcification can occur in the lungs

Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. bovis

130

Large nodules in the skin
Slowly progressing, chronic granulomatous disease
Acid fast bacteria

M. leprae

131

Are acid fast bacteria easily treated?

No (this is mycobacterium and nocardia)

132

What are the two states of Anaplasma

infectious and vegetative stage

133

non metabolic particles are the infective stage of this bacteria

Chylamidia elementary bodies
The metabolically active, replicative ones are called reticulate bodies

134

Multicellular filamentous hyphae with conidia

mold

135

No hyphae, single cells

Yeast

136

Dimorphic fungi are yeast at what temperatures?

Warm, molds in cold temperatures

137

Opportunistic yeasts that are part of normal flora and do not cause disease in healthy animals (2 of them)

Candida and Aspergillus

138

Yeast
Can see as exofoliative dermatitis of the muzzle, sometimes can see a white film
Can spread to the gastroesophageal area, heart, brain, kidney

Candida

139

See hyphae
hemorrhage from nose, epistasis, dysphagia in the horse

Aspergillus causing guttural pouch mycosis

140

See hyphae
Can cause severe cheese like discharge, pneomonia and air sacculitis in birds
Can see blood discharge in affected dogs

Aspergillus

141

Molds
Either anthropophilic (pathogen of humans), Zoophillic (pathogens of animals, but may infected humans), Geophilic soil dwelling
Tested using Derm- Dert (there will be growth and turn red)

Dermatophytoses (ringworm)
(microsporum and Trichophyton)

142

The most common dermatophyte in domestic animals!!

Microsporum canis

143

soil dwelling
Wide host range
rough, thick walled macroconidia
See hyphae
Affects skin

Microsporum spp.

144

smooth, thin walled macroconidia
see hyphae
affect skin
Wide host range

Trichophyton

145

Lipophilic yeast and part of cutaneous microflora, BUT can become opportunistic
Peanut shaped
Common symptoms: ear otitis, dermatitis, chin acne

Malassezzia

146

Common in bite wounds
dimorphic
Seen commonly in cats
Rarely disseminate
Chronic
Thick wall
zoonotis
Infections involving deeper layers of skin, muscle, bone, or connective tissue

Sporothrix schenckii (subcutaneous mycoses)

147

Transmission through inhalation of spores!
Can cause disease in healthy individuals
Really no treatment

Systemic Mycoses

148

Dimorphic
Peanut shaped with a broad based bud
Cutaneous, ophthalmic, respiratory, lymphadenitis
Eastern US

Blastomycosis

149

Dimorphic
Arizona, New Mexico
Intermittent diarrhea, primarily pulmonary infection, anemia
Has sporangia and "arthrocanidia" (canidia in the "joint" of hyphae)
Only need 1 spore to infect

Coccidomycosis

150

Dimorphic
Ohio- Mississippi valley
Dogs are most frequently infected
Tick capsule when in yeast from
Lymphadeopathy, neuro, anemia

Histoplasmosis

151

Yeast
systemic disease in cats
Nasal cavity is primary site and will see "cheesy snot"

Cryptococcosis

152

Is there a vaccine for Clostridium?

Yes
Cows-histotoxic type
Horses-neurotoxic type

153

Wild animal/rodent reservoir
curly bacteria
Tick transmitted, leaves "bulls eye rash"
lymphadenopathy
arthritis/lameness
wide host range
vaccinate dogs

Borrelia

154

Wide host range
COMMON in bite wounds, especially cats
Shipping fever occurs in cows
pneumonia
septicemia
mastitis
Vaccinate pigs and cattle

PASTURELLA
Bibersteinia
Mannhemia- shipping fever

154

Causes "wooden tongue" in cows, big granulomas in tongue
Gram negative
Oxidase positive

Actinobacillus, note that it can look like Corynebacter or actinomyces