Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

2120 Health and Illness Concepts II > Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (53):

Formal leadership

Individuals occupy designated administrative or management positions (CEO, director of nursing, nurse managers)


Informal leadership

Individuals are perceived as such by their supervisors and peers because of their capabilities and actions (senior staff, etc)


Autocratic leadership

The leader makes all the decisions, they are mostly concerned with the tasks to be accomplished and keep distanced from followers; useful when a decision needs to be made quickly


Democratic leadership

Leaders involve employees in the decision-making process, they show concern for followers. Not appropriate for a new nurse


Laissez-faire leadership

The leader doesn't interfere with the employees and their work. They provide minimal information and have a little communication with their followers. They usually wait until a crisis develops to make a decision. This is never appropriate and nursing


Transactional leadership

They focus on daily operations. They develop an exchange relationship with employees, regarding followers when they perform, and correcting them when necessary


Transformational leadership

Changes or transforms individuals, communicate an organization vision to the employees, and move them to accomplish more than expected


Shared leadership

Associated with work teams; distributed leadership broadly within a group, and lead one another to achieve a goal


What are the interrelated concepts of leadership?

Leadership development, management, communication, collaboration.


What are the attributes of leadership?

Followers, vision, communication, decision-making, change, and social power


What is coercive power?

Doing something in order to not get punished; to not conform means punishment


What is legitimate power?

Formal leaders have power over followers because of their position


What is referent power?

Followers identify or inspire to be like their leader


What is expert power?

Followers perceive leaders to know best


Informational power

Leader uses logic, rational argument, and information for change



The relief or management of symptoms without providing a cure


What are the goals of palliative care?

Early prevention or treatment of symptoms; prevent or treat psychological, social, and spiritual problems related to the disease or it's treatment; and assist patients to live more comfortably


Supportive care

Medical interventions to improve quality of life. Patient is not necessarily dying. It involves fluid replacement therapy, blood transfusions, psychological or spiritual needs of the patient or family. Focus is not on symptom management but focus on physical issues


Comfort care

Focus on relief of discomfort rather than curative or prolongation of life. Physical, social, and emotional needs are priority. High dose of pain medication may have the effect of hastening death. The patient is actively dying. It involves positioning, oral care, and skin care. Comfort management not symptom management


End of life care

The patient has days to weeks to live. Used synonymously with hospice care. It involves symptom management, and comfort care. No IV, foley catheter, and antibiotics.


Four goals to support persons with concurrent multiple chronic conditions

Provide better tools and information to healthcare and social service workers who deliver care to these individuals, maximize the use of proven self-care management and other services by these individuals, foster healthcare and public health system changes to improve the health of these individuals, and facilitate research to fill knowledge gaps about individuals with multiple chronic conditions


Good death

Free from avoidable stress and suffering for patients, families, and caregivers; consistent with clinical practice standards


Bad death

Pain; not having one's wishes followed at the end of life; isolation, abandonment.


What are direct causes of death?

Heart failure, cardiac dysrhythmias, MI, cardiogenic shock, respiratory failure, PE, respiratory arrest, and shock


Advance directives

A legal document stating the care they would like at end of life that would positively affect the dying experience for the patient and family


Criteria for making advance directives

The patient must receive information ;evaluate, deliberate, and mentally manipulate information; and communicate a treatment preference


Name the three different types of DNR orders

Slow code, chemical code only, and full code


Interventions for coolness of extremities

Cover the person with a blanket, and do not use an electric blanket, hot water bottle, or heating pad


Interventions for increased sleeping

Spend time sitting quietly with the person, do not force a person to stay awake, and talk to the person as you normally do even if they don't respond


Interventions for fluid and food decrease

Do not force food or drink, offer small sips of liquids or ice chips if alert enough to swallow, and perform oral care


Interventions for incontinence

Keep perineal area clean and dry, use disposable underpads, chug, disposable undergarments, and consider a Foley


Interventions for congestion and gurgling

Position the patient on his or her side, administer medications to decrease production of secretions, and suction for comfort


Interventions for breathing pattern change

Elevate the person's head, and position them on their side


Interventions for disorientation

Identify yourself whenever you speak to the person, re-orient the person as needed; speak softly, clearly, and truthfully


Interventions for restlessness

Play soothing music, aroma therapy, do not restrain, massage person's forehead, reduce number of people in the room, talk quietly, keep room dimly lit, keep noise level to a minimum, and consider sedation if necessary



To stimulate toward an action; the energy and direction of an action


Intrinsic motivation

Acting a certain way because of feelings of enjoyment and competence rather than obligation or the potential for reward


Extrinsic motivation

External motivation depends on receiving an award or independent outcome



Patients do not place value in an activity; do not believe it will result in a desired outcome; can be a result of cognitive or emotional dysfunction


Achievement motivation

Self-satisfaction obtained from achieving a goal


Power motivation

People feel the need to be successful in competition and have the idea of winning or being number one


Affiliative motivation

A non conscious concern for establishing, maintaining, and restoring close personal relationships with others


Avoidance motivation

Anxiety and fear are powerful, distressing emotions that can motivate a person to behave in a certain manner


Influential factors for intrinsic motivation

Age, cognitive level, educational level, emotional readiness, and fear of failure


Influential factors for extrinsic motivation

Cultural values, family, accessibility of facilities, and readiness of the healthcare team


What is the drive reduction theory of motivation, and who made it?

Clark hull's theory states that motivation originated with a biological imbalance and that an internal drive or motivation would eliminate the deficiency within the person


What is the humanistic theory of motivation and who wrote it?

Maslow's theory states that a person must feel satisfied that essential physiological needs such as food, water, oxygen, and shelter must be met before the individual will feel compelled or motivated to strive for higher needs


Psychology and it's relationship to motivating behaviors

Lewin's theory States that influences of an individual's total situation must be taken into account


What are the interrelated concepts of motivation?

Self efficacy, intentions, compliance and control


What are premature ventricle contractions, and how do you treat it?

PVCs result from increased irritability of ventricle cells and seen as early ventricular contraction's followed by a pause. Treatment is based on the cause: oxygen therapy for hypoxia; electrolyte replacement; drugs such as amiodarone.


What is ventricular tachycardia, and how do you treat it?

Occurs with repetitive firing of an irritable ventricular at the topic focus, usually at a rate of 140 to 180 bpm. It can lead to cardiac arrest.
Stable (w/pulse and no s/s of decreased CO): oxygen and antidysrhythmic drugs.
Unstable (w/pulse and s/s of decreased CO): oxygen and antidysrhytmic drugs; cardioversion.
Pulseless: CPR and defibrillation


What is ventricular fibrillation, and how do you treat it?

The heart doesn't contract effectively, the ventricles quiver, no CO. If it is not treated within 3 to 5 minutes, death will result.
Treatment involves immediate CPR and defibrillation


What is asystole and how do you treated?

The total absence of ventricular activity. Treatment includes CPR