Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (78):
What is the leading US state in pig production?
Over the last 35 years, milk production in the US has (increased/decreased) but the number of dairy cows has (increased/decreased)
decreased number of dairy cows
what are the levels of US poultry production? (top to bottom)
Top: genetics/selection farms
bottom: production farms
How long does it take a commercial broiler to reach market weight?
How often are broiler production houses cleaned?
cleaned and disinfected between each flock
On average, how long does it take a layer hen to lay one egg?
one egg every 24 hrs
what kind of farms in the US are the majority of eggs produced?
C. organic with cages
D. organic w/o cages
B. In line egg farms
What is egg candling used for?
removing eggs with cracks
removing eggs with internal defects
removing eggs with feces or feathers
removing fertilized eggs
what is the most frequent system of egg production in the US?
A. battery cages
B. enriched colony cages
C. free range
A. battery cages
how long is the gestation of a sheep or goat?
how long is the productive lifespan of a commercial laying hen?
just under 2 years
Why is the farrowing crate used?
to prevent sows from crushing the piglets
After how long will the chick hatch out of the egg?
Ideal production in dairy cattle is: _____ number of calves per year and _______ days of lactation .
one calf per year and 305 days of lactation
Which dairy breed has the highest fat content in milk on average?
Jersey cattle, 4.9% fat content
How long is the gestation of a camel?
What kind of confirmation is ideal in beef cattle?
what confirmation is ideal for dairy cattle?
what is the main objective of a cow-calf beef cattle production?
Produce calves to sell to feedlot operations
What is not done in male calf management?
B. Fe injection
B. Fe injection
What finishing system has more roughages and less grain?
deferred finishing systems
Turkeys have (increased/decreased) live weight and (increased/decreased) breast proportion.
increased live weight
increased breast proportion
What types/breeds of turkeys are selected for range production?
Broad Breasted Bronze and Beltsville Small White
AI is the most common breeding method of commercial production in:
Turkey and Dairy cattle production
What is the gestation time of a yak?
260-270 days, similar to a cow
Which of the ratites is found in S. America?
Which species has the meat with the lowest cholesterol content?
How are the majority of turkeys raised in the US?
Salmonid fish are:
a. an old lineage of fish
b. native to N, hemisphere
c. predatory fish
d. develop secondary sexual characteristics when breeding
e. all of the above
E. all of the above
How do anadromous fish spend their life?
migrate up fresh water river from oceans to spawn
T/F: Farms on the Pacific coast of Chile are one of the largest global producers of Atlantic salmon
Which two species are used in cold northern climates for draught and milk purposes?
Bos grunniens and Camelus bactrianus
Sanga cattle have huge horns to?
what color in cattle is associated with heat tolerance?
What is the main difference between an oxen and a steer?
Oxen- castrated male b/w 3-5 years old
What are polled cattle?
Cattle genetically bred to not have horns
What is the 'largest breed' of cattle in the world?
T/F: West Highland cattle are wild and difficult to work with and Jersey bulls are dangerous to work with.
What are the difference between dairy cattle and beef cattle breeding and calving?
Dairy cattle: breed and produce calves year round
Beef cattle: breed once a year and calve in the spring
what is the gestation of Bos Taurus?
T/F: the average dairy cow produces about 20,000 lbs of milk a year
True. The best producing cow produced 90,000 lbs
what breed is considered the best for producing the greatest quantity of milk?
How old are dairy cows when they are first bred?
how old are beef cows when they are first bred?
when a dairy cow is no longer profitable, producing <50 lbs milk a day, what happens to her?
she will be dried off
What is needed for cows to continue to produce milk?
must be bred every year
what is TMR?
total mixed ration
how long is the ideal lactation in dairy cows?
how is milk production measured?
why are the majority of broiler chickens white feathered?
they have less dark marks on their skin after the feathers are plucked.
what is the most important component in broiler poultry production to ensure good health and decrease stress?
what is the most expensive part of poultry farming?
how are eggs sorted into jumbo or large categories?
goats have tails that are __________. Sheep have tails that are ________________.
goats- tail up
sheep- tail down
what species of bovine is most heat resistant?
which ovary does a hen use?
what can you determine from the big air space in an egg?
age of the egg
what is the most important factor to getting a hen to lay and keep laying eggs?
light (increased light)
what is the most important factor to keep turkeys from laying too early?
light (limit it)
which color egg has the most nutritional value?
jk! there is no difference based on color
What is candling used for?
look for defects in the eggs
separate improperly cleaned eggs
check for fertility
what is the difference b/w free range and cage free eggs?
Free range- eggs from chickens who have outdoor access
cage free- eggs from chickens kept in large indoor runs
what fermented beverage is made from mares' milk?
how are layer chicks sexed?
Sorting by cloacal and feather differences
what is the gestation time of a bison?
what is the gestation of an ostrich chick?
about 6 weeks (42 days)
what is the main difference in extensive and intensive pig production programs?
Extensive- sows and piglets have access to outdoor paddocks/pasture
T/F: if sows can see a boar they will come into heat sooner
Which of the following is native to N. America?
A. camelus bacterianus
B. Bos grunniens
C. Meleagris gallopavo
D. Rhea Americana
C. Meleagris gallopavo
What differentiates a ratite from other avian species?
Ratites do not have a keel.
what is the second largest ratite? (Australian)
Dromaius novaehollandiae (Emu)
Ratite in S. America?
what is commonly used to move ostrichs' and reduce stress?
putting a hood over their eyes
what is a common problem in ratites bred for production?
angular limb deformities
what products are sold from Ostrich production?
eggs, feathers, leather, eggs, chicks, meat
how long is the gestation of a pig?
how long is the gestation of most S. American camelids?