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RUSVM Animal Production Summer 2017 > Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (78):
1

What is the leading US state in pig production?

Iowa

2

Over the last 35 years, milk production in the US has (increased/decreased) but the number of dairy cows has (increased/decreased)

Increased production
decreased number of dairy cows

3

what are the levels of US poultry production? (top to bottom)

Top: genetics/selection farms
reproduction farms
bottom: production farms

4

How long does it take a commercial broiler to reach market weight?

6 weeks

5

How often are broiler production houses cleaned?

cleaned and disinfected between each flock

6

On average, how long does it take a layer hen to lay one egg?

one egg every 24 hrs

7

what kind of farms in the US are the majority of eggs produced?
A. off-line
B. in-line
C. organic with cages
D. organic w/o cages

B. In line egg farms

8

What is egg candling used for?

removing eggs with cracks
removing eggs with internal defects
removing eggs with feces or feathers
removing fertilized eggs

9

what is the most frequent system of egg production in the US?
A. battery cages
B. enriched colony cages
C. free range
D. indoor/cage-free

A. battery cages

10

how long is the gestation of a sheep or goat?

5 months

11

how long is the productive lifespan of a commercial laying hen?

just under 2 years

12

Why is the farrowing crate used?

to prevent sows from crushing the piglets

13

After how long will the chick hatch out of the egg?

21 days

14

Ideal production in dairy cattle is: _____ number of calves per year and _______ days of lactation .

one calf per year and 305 days of lactation

15

Which dairy breed has the highest fat content in milk on average?

Jersey cattle, 4.9% fat content

16

How long is the gestation of a camel?

13-14 months

17

What kind of confirmation is ideal in beef cattle?

rectangular

18

what confirmation is ideal for dairy cattle?

triangular

19

what is the main objective of a cow-calf beef cattle production?

Produce calves to sell to feedlot operations

20

What is not done in male calf management?
A. dehorning
B. Fe injection
C. castration
D. branding

B. Fe injection

21

What finishing system has more roughages and less grain?

deferred finishing systems

22

Turkeys have (increased/decreased) live weight and (increased/decreased) breast proportion.

increased live weight
increased breast proportion

23

What types/breeds of turkeys are selected for range production?

Broad Breasted Bronze and Beltsville Small White

24

AI is the most common breeding method of commercial production in:

Turkey and Dairy cattle production

25

What is the gestation time of a yak?

260-270 days, similar to a cow

26

Which of the ratites is found in S. America?

Rhea

27

Which species has the meat with the lowest cholesterol content?

Turkeys

28

How are the majority of turkeys raised in the US?

in confinement

29

Salmonid fish are:
a. an old lineage of fish
b. native to N, hemisphere
c. predatory fish
d. develop secondary sexual characteristics when breeding
e. all of the above

E. all of the above

30

How do anadromous fish spend their life?

migrate up fresh water river from oceans to spawn

31

T/F: Farms on the Pacific coast of Chile are one of the largest global producers of Atlantic salmon

True

32

Which two species are used in cold northern climates for draught and milk purposes?

Bos grunniens and Camelus bactrianus

33

Sanga cattle have huge horns to?

keep cool

34

what color in cattle is associated with heat tolerance?

red

35

What is the main difference between an oxen and a steer?

Oxen- castrated male b/w 3-5 years old

36

What are polled cattle?

Cattle genetically bred to not have horns

37

What is the 'largest breed' of cattle in the world?

Chianina

38

T/F: West Highland cattle are wild and difficult to work with and Jersey bulls are dangerous to work with.

True

39

What are the difference between dairy cattle and beef cattle breeding and calving?

Dairy cattle: breed and produce calves year round

Beef cattle: breed once a year and calve in the spring

40

what is the gestation of Bos Taurus?

280 days

41

T/F: the average dairy cow produces about 20,000 lbs of milk a year

True. The best producing cow produced 90,000 lbs

42

what breed is considered the best for producing the greatest quantity of milk?

Holstein-Friesland

43

How old are dairy cows when they are first bred?

14 months

44

how old are beef cows when they are first bred?

2 years

45

when a dairy cow is no longer profitable, producing <50 lbs milk a day, what happens to her?

she will be dried off

46

What is needed for cows to continue to produce milk?

must be bred every year

47

what is TMR?

total mixed ration

48

how long is the ideal lactation in dairy cows?

305 days

49

how is milk production measured?

pounds, lbs

50

why are the majority of broiler chickens white feathered?

they have less dark marks on their skin after the feathers are plucked.

51

what is the most important component in broiler poultry production to ensure good health and decrease stress?

ventilation

52

what is the most expensive part of poultry farming?

feed

53

how are eggs sorted into jumbo or large categories?

by weight

54

goats have tails that are __________. Sheep have tails that are ________________.

goats- tail up
sheep- tail down

55

what species of bovine is most heat resistant?

Bos indicus

56

which ovary does a hen use?

the left

57

what can you determine from the big air space in an egg?

age of the egg

58

what is the most important factor to getting a hen to lay and keep laying eggs?

light (increased light)

59

what is the most important factor to keep turkeys from laying too early?

light (limit it)

60

which color egg has the most nutritional value?

jk! there is no difference based on color

61

What is candling used for?

look for defects in the eggs
separate improperly cleaned eggs
check for fertility

62

what is the difference b/w free range and cage free eggs?

Free range- eggs from chickens who have outdoor access

cage free- eggs from chickens kept in large indoor runs

63

what fermented beverage is made from mares' milk?

Airag

64

how are layer chicks sexed?

Sorting by cloacal and feather differences

65

what is the gestation time of a bison?

283 days

66

what is the gestation of an ostrich chick?

about 6 weeks (42 days)

67

what is the main difference in extensive and intensive pig production programs?

Extensive- sows and piglets have access to outdoor paddocks/pasture

68

T/F: if sows can see a boar they will come into heat sooner

true

69

Which of the following is native to N. America?
A. camelus bacterianus
B. Bos grunniens
C. Meleagris gallopavo
D. Rhea Americana

C. Meleagris gallopavo

70

What differentiates a ratite from other avian species?

Ratites do not have a keel.

71

what is the second largest ratite? (Australian)

Dromaius novaehollandiae (Emu)

72

Ratite in S. America?

Rhea

73

what is commonly used to move ostrichs' and reduce stress?

putting a hood over their eyes

74

what is a common problem in ratites bred for production?

angular limb deformities

75

what products are sold from Ostrich production?

eggs, feathers, leather, eggs, chicks, meat

76

how long is the gestation of a pig?

115 days

77

how long is the gestation of most S. American camelids?

11 months

78

what is the 2nd largest producer of milk worldwide? (species)

Water Buffalo