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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (78):
1

Describe the technique/response to test for alertness (level of consciousness/arousal).

Speak to patient in normal tone of voice Response: opens eyes, looks at you, responds fully and appropriately

2

Describe the technique/response to test for lethargy (level of consciousness/arousal).

Speak to the patient in a loud voice Response: appears drowsy but opens eyes, looks at you, responds, falls asleep

3

Describe the technique/response to test for obtundation (level of consciousness/arousal).

Shake the patient gently as if awakening a sleeper Response: opens eyes, looks at you, responds slowly, is confused, alertness is decreased

4

Describe the technique/response to test for stupor (level of consciousness/arousal).

Apply a painful stimulus Response: arouses from sleep only after painful stimulus; verbal responses are slow/absent, minimal awareness of self/environment

5

Describe the technique/response to test for coma (level of consciousness/arousal).

Apply repeated painful stimuli Response: remains unarousable with eyes closed

6

What are the 12 major aspects of general appearance?

1. General state of health 2. Level of comfort 3. Respiratory effort 4. Development stage 5. Height/weight 6. Posture, motor activity, gait 7. Deformities or distinguishing characteristics 8. Characteristic facies 9. Dress, grooming, personal hygiene 10. Odors 11. Level of awareness/consciousnes 12. Skin color/hair distribution

7

What are some descriptors of general state of health?

Frail, chronically ill, robust, vigorous

8

What are some indicators of level of comfort?

Wincing/grimacing, crying, doubled over in pain, clutching chest, hand around neck, resting comfortably in bed

9

What is an important physical cue for emphysema?

Tripod position/leaning forward

10

What are some indicators of abnormal respiration?

Gasping for breath, labored breathing, coughing, unable to speak in sentences, use of accessory muscles of respiration (SCM, trapezius, scalenus), audible wheezing/stridor

11

What is the Dahl sign?

Clinical sign in which areas of darkened and thickened skin are seen on the lower thighs and elbows

12

What are two potential causes of unusual shortness?

1. Turner syndrome 2. Achondroplasia

13

What are two potential causes of unusual tallness?

1. Marfan syndrome 2. Gigantism/acromegaly

14

What are some physical signs of Turner's syndrome?

Short stature, webbed neck, increased carrying angle, swelling of feet

15

What are some physical signs of Marfan syndrome?

Tall, thin, disproportionate, chest deformity, thumbs stick out past the side of the hand when making a fist, can wrap hand around wrist and cross finger and thumb

16

What are the BMI ranges of underweight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese?

Underweight: less than 18 Overweight: 25-29 Obese: 30-39 Morbidly obese: 40+

17

What is a weight-related sign of Cushing's?

Buffalo hump, central obesity with thin limbs

18

What are some aspects to look for in posture/motor activity?

1. Kyphosis 2. Scoliosis 3. Need arms to get out of a chair 4. Ambulation aids 5. Anxious/fidgeting 6. Sitting up (left sided heart failure) 7. Leaning forward sitting up (COPD)

19

What is a noticeable gait in Parkinson disease?

Shuffling

20

What is hemiplegic gait?

Circumduction of the paralyzed limb with the ball of the great toe touching the ground as it sweeps around; upper limb is flexed and internally rotated

21

What does stamping gait occur in?

Tabes dorsalis (proprioception loss)

22

What is scissor gait and when does it occur?

One leg crosses in front of the other as the patient walks; spastic paraplegia (cerebral palsy)

23

What are some possible deformities or distinguishing characteristics?

1. Amputees 2. Scars 3. Piercings/tattoos

24

What is moon face associated with?

Cushing's

25

What is prognathism associated with?

Acromegaly

26

What is a stare associated with?

Thyrotoxicosis

27

What are myxedema, loss of lateral 1/3 of eyebrows, puffy face, dry/dough skin, and brittle hair associated with?

Severe hypothyroidism

28

What are masked faced, hunched posture, resting tremor, no arm swing with walking, and minimal blinking associated with?

Parkinson

29

What is a butterfly rash associated with?

Lupus

30

What are some physical signs of Down syndrome?

Epicanthal folds, increased space between 2 digits of feet, shorter 5th finger, crease across palm, small ears

31

What might untied shoes indicate?

Edema

32

What might cut holes in shoes indicate?

Bunions or gout

33

What are some important odors to pay attention for?

1. Alcohol 2. Fruity odor (ketoacidosis) 3. Fecal odor (anaerobic infection) 4. Urine 5. Tobacco

34

What is yellow skin color associated with?

Jaundice Hypercarotenemia

35

What is blue skin associated with?

Cyanosis, silver ingestion

36

What is red skin associated with?

Sunburn, rash, allergy

37

What is alopecia?

Loss of hair

38

What is hirsutism?

Increased hair growth

39

What does yellow skin with a white sclera indicate?

Carotenemia

40

What might circumduction of the leg and/or a flexed upper limb indicate?

Stroke

41

What is acute otitis media?

Acute inflammation of the middle ear (red, bulging)

42

What is serous otitis media?

Fluid in the middle ear (can see an air-fluid level)

43

What is hemotympanum?

Blood behind the eardrum (bulging, black/red)

44

What is tympanosclerosis?

Scar tissue on the ear drum (white)

45

What is a tympanic membrane perforation?

Partial hole, can see into the inner ear

46

What is cholesteatoma?

Keratin debris in the middle ear behind the ear drum

47

What is otitis externa and how is it treated?

External auditory canal infection; wick (steroid and antibiotic drops funneled into the EAC)

48

What is serumen?

Wax

49

What will you see in allergic rhinitis?

Swelling, serous fluid

50

What will a CT scan look like in sinusitis?

Areas that should be black (air filled) are grey

51

What does the nose look like when the septum collapses?

Saddle nose

52

What happens in a peritonsillar abscess?

Red bulging, can't see tonsils, uvula deviates to contralateral side, muffled speech

53

What is a ranula?

Sublingual gland cyst

54

What is parotitis?

Inflammation of the parotid gland

55

80% of tumors in major salivary glands are ___. 80% of tumors in minor salivary glands are ___.

Benign; malignant

56

This cyst moves up and down when a patient sticks out their tongue

Thyroglossal duct cyst

57

Lateral neck swelling anterior to the SCM might be indicative of a ___.

Branchial cleft cyst

58

The part of the eardrum above the malleus is the ___; everything else is the ___.

Pars flaccida; pars tensa

59

What is bullous myringitis?

Painful hemorrhagic vesicles appear on the tympanic membrane, the ear canal, or both

60

What are the 5 steps to the eye exam?

1. Visual acuity/fields 2. Pupils 3. External eye exam 4. Extra-ocular muscles 5. Fundus exam

61

Bitemporal hemianopia is commonly seen with a ___.

Pituitary tumor

62

What is ptosis?

Droopy eyelid

63

What is entropion?

Lid turning in

64

What is ectropion?

Lid sagging out

65

Which CN control which extra-ocular muscles?

LR6, SO4, all else 3

66

What is esotropia?

Turning in of the eye

67

What is exotropia?

Turning out of the eye

68

What happens in paretic strabismus

Paralysis of an extra-ocular muscle

69

___ leads to increased cupping and atrophy of optic nerve cells.

Glaucoma

70

If you see "cotton wool spots" in the retina, what is this a sign up?

Hypertensive retinopathy

71

What causes a horizontal defect in the eye?

Occlusion of a branch of the central retinal artery

72

What causes blindness in the right eye?

Lesion of the right optic nerve

73

What causes bitemporal hemianopsia?

Lesion at the optic chiasm

74

What causes homonymous left superior quadrantic defect?

Partial lesion of the right optic radiation

75

What causes left homonoymous hemianopsia?

Lesion of the right optic radiation

76

Draw the optic tracts. 

A image thumb
77

What will the physical exam show with CN III paralysis?

Dilated pupil fixed, ptosis of upper eyelid, lateral deviation of eye

78

What will the physical exam show in Horner's syndrome?

Ptosis of eyelid