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1

Special Education

specially designed instruction, at no cost, to the parents, to to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability including instruction in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals, institutions and other settings, instruction in physical education

2

related services

transportation, developmental, corrective, and other support services (OT, PT, Rehab)

3

supplementary aids and services

aids, services, and other supports that are provided in a regular ed classroom. related to academic achievement (i.e. ed tech)

4

Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard

French physician famous for finding Victor, the feral wild child. Determined students can only be compared to where they started and can benefit from instruction

5

Edouard Seguin

structured learning environments* positive reinforcement, negative impact of punishment, importance of structure & clear communication

6

eugenics

involuntary sterilization of people with disabilities to prevent them from diluting the race (i.e. Hitler)

7

Brown vs. Board of Ed

separate cannot be equal

8

ESEA

Education and Secondary Education Act - first federal law to address the education of students with disabilities by providing states funding to assist in creating programs - updated to be called NCLB

9

IDEA

Individuals with Disabilities Act - support for birth to age 21. Included many provisions including discipline, parent participation, and regular ed teachers, led to the IEP (established academic rights)

10

IEP

Individualized Education Program - This document summarizes all the information gathered concerning the student, sets the expec tations of what the student will learn over the next year, and prescribes the types and amounts of special services the student will receive

11

Section 504

civil right - more broadly defines disability as an impairment that limits one or more major life activity. gives benefits not covered by IDEA like ADHD, ADD, diabetes, think *accommodations

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FAPE

free and appropriate public education

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LRE

least restrictive environment

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ADA

Americans with Disabilities Act - civil right covering all ages, access to public buildings, resources, employment, etc

15

Differentiation

change can be made in the teaching/learning process to enable diverse learning needs to be met

16

What students are not served by IDEA?

ADHD, ADD, gifted/talents, students at risk for school failure

17

How many students aged 6 to 21 receive SPED?

8.5%

18

NCLB

No child left behind - expected to achieve the same educational goals (i.e. proficiency in reading and math)

19

What kinds of services are available for infants-pre-K

services through idea under 'developmentally delayed' until a diagnosis is determined

20

What are some barriers to prevent parent collaboration in the SPED process?

Time, language barriers, transportation, cultural difference, migrant workers

21

Preferential seating, word-prediction software, and a one-on-one teaching assistant are examples of:

Supplementary Aids and Services

22

PARC stands for

Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children

23

Which is considered the “basis for all subsequent special education practice”

P.L. 94-142 Education of the Handicapped Act

24

Which groups of students are underrepresented in special education?

Hispanics/Asians

25

Mr. Edwards is a single dad whose son has recently been diagnosed with Tourette‘s
syndrome. He will begin kindergarten in the fall. Mr. Edwards knows that by law his son in entitled to specialized instruction, related services, and supplemental aids and services. Mr. Edwards and his son are guaranteed these rights by which provisions of IDEA?

Free and Appropriate Education

26

Special education is affected by laws that guarantee the civil rights of children and adults. These two laws are:

Section 504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

27

Which of the following is a critical issue related to parent participation?

lack of time

28

Some professionals have argued that disciplinary procedures have been used as tools of discrimination against students with disabilities who:

Are from minority groups and live in poverty.

29

According to NCLB, students for whom English is NOT their first language must be assessed using tests written in English after receiving how many consecutive years of instruction in U.S. schools?

three years

30

A positive trend that may contribute to reducing disproportionate representation in special education is:

RTI - Response to intervention

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Intervention Assistance Team

its goals are to help the teacher problem solve regarding the student, to generate new ideas for helping the student, to con sider various explanations for the noted problems, and to prevent—if possible— the need for special education

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Response to Intervention

1. To ensure that students receive research-proven remediation and other sup ports as soon as they are identified as having academic difficulties, even in kindergarten, rather than waiting until an academic or behavior gap has grown significantly and, perhaps, to the point that it cannot be closed 2. To ensure that professionals gather high-quality data to document the effectiveness of those remedial strategies and supports and to guide their decision making about possible referral for special education services

33

Multidisciplinary Team

special ed referral - members of the intervention assistance team, gen ed teachers, parents

34

annual review

required: update information about the student’s learning, review the student’s progress, and set goals for the upcoming year. After the new IEP is written, parents receive a copy of this docu ment, which guides the student’s education for the next year. If minor changes are needed in the IEP during the year, the law allows it to be amended rather than rewritten.

35

three-year reevaluation

accounts for change over tie; re-tests students and/or can use existing data. not required to obtain parental permission

36

IEP Team

Parents, Special Ed teacher, General Ed teacher, school district representative, individual who can interpret results of evals, the student, and someone from transition services if over 16, other individuals with knowledge, expertise related to the student (speech path, OT, PT, etc)

37

Continuum of Placement

(a) general education, (b) resource class, (c) separate class, (d) separate school, (e) residential facility, and (f) home or hospital

38

due process hearing

Due process hearings usually are held because the needs of students with disabilities are complex and the types, intensity, and quality of services often can be subject to interpretation.

39

culture

is a complex system of underlying beliefs, attitudes, and ac tions that shapes the thoughts and behaviors of a group of people, distinguish ing them from other groups

40

dominant culture

the culture of those in power

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macroculture

overarching cultural aspects within a society

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microculture

groups that have distinguishing characteristics with respect to culture, such as language or dialect, values, behaviors, and worldviews.

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field independent

characterized by the inclination to be analytical in processing information

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field sensitive

reflect a holistic approach to processing information

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Cultural dissonance

refers to a significant discrepancy between two or more cultural frames of reference.

46

systemic bias

favoritism toward a particular group that occurs at multiple levels within a society or institution, making such favoritism an implicit part of it.
instruction, teacher attitude, , SPED referral

47

Multicultural education

approach to education that includes perspectives from and content about diverse groups, embraces diverse cognitive styles, and promotes equity in a diverse society

48

ELLS

English Language Learners

49

bilingual education

an approach that uses the student’s dominant lan— guage along with English for instructional purposes

50

ESL - English as Second Language

professionals teach English directly to individuals who speak another language. However, unlike bilin gual programs, ESL programs do not use the student’s native language to teach the curriculum but

51

Sheltered English

teachers might use concrete objects and gestures to help convey meaning. Language demands also may be modified by adjusting the rate of speech and providing context clues

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collaboration

a style for direct interaction between at least two co—equal parties voluntarily engaged in shared decision making as they work to ward a common goal

53

One Teach, One Observe

one observe co-teaching approach, one educator manages the instruction of the entire group of students while the other gathers data on one student, a small group of students, or even the entire class.

54

Parallel Teaching

two professionals may decide to split a group of students in half and simultaneously provide the same instruction.

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Station Teaching

the teachers divide instruction into two, three, or even more nonsequential components, and each is addressed in a separate area of the room. Each student participates in each station.

56

Alternative Teaching

pulling a small group of students to the side of the room for instruction (remedial, pre-teaching)

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Teaming

fluidly sharing the instructional responsibilities of the entire student group:

58

One Teach, One Assist

one teacher manages the instruction of the entire student group while the other circulates through the classroom, providing assistance

59

paraprofessionals

valuable members of the instructional teams for students, but these staff members do not have the same professional status or job respon sibilities as the professionals