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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (33):

General Characteristics of Blood?

Volume: 5-6 L for men and 4-5 L for women
pH: 7.35-7.45 (slightly alkaline)
Viscosity: 5x as viscous as water
Water: 92%
Proteins (albumins 58%; globulins 37%; fibrinogen 4%): 7%
Other Solutes (electrolytes, nutrients, etc): 1%


General functions of blood?

Transporting substances: Gases (Oxygen), nutrients (from digestive tract/fat stores), Hormones (hormones from endocrine), wastes (tissues or kidneys)
Regulation: pH, Ion composition of interstitial fluids
Limiting Fluid Loss: clotting at injury site, platelets form meshwork
Defense: blood cells fight infections
Maintain Body Temp: absorbs heat from skeletal muscle and redistributes it


Specific functions of: plasma proteins?

90% produced by liver
Albumins: help maintain osmotic pressure of plasma
Globulins: immunity and transport substances (ions, hormones, lipids)
Fibrinogen: forms fibrin (clotting)
Regulatory Proteins: inflammation and destroying foreign molecules
Electrolytes: sodium, potassium, calcium
Nutrients: Used to help grow/maintain cells and produce ATP
Wastes: Carried to areas for breakdown/excretion (urea, creatinine, bilirubin)


Specific Functions of red blood cells?

No nuclei, ribosomes, or mitochondria (120 days)
Biconcave shape: large surface to volume ratio (faster exchange); stackable (eases flow); flexible
Transport gases with Hb (14-18 males; 12-16 females)
Heme molecule (contains iron; helps with ability to release)


Specific functions of platelets?

Contain granules that mediate clotting, retraction, and dissolution
Form plug: aggregate, cause more to appear, create clot, clot disappears


Functions of Neutrophils?

First ones on the scene
Most abundant
Kill and phagocytize bacteria
Tells others that help is needed


Functions of Eosinophils?

Bilobed nucleus
Stain darker than neutrophils
Kill parasitic worms, active in allergic reactions
Numbers increase during reactions
Bronchi, GI, vagina


Functions of Basophils?

Bilobed nucleus (hidden by granules)
Densely stained
Key proteins: heparin (anti-coagulant) and histamine (anti-inflammatory, incrases vascularity)


Functions of lymphocytes?

Most abundant agranulocyte
Spherical, large nuclei take up most of the cell
Subdivided into:
B (antibody production), T, (antigen processing) and Natural Killers (destroy cells making perforations)


Functions of Monocytes?

C-shaped nucleus
Role: phagocytize
When migrated, called macrophages


Whole blood component breakdown?

Plasma: 55%
RBCs: 45%
Platelets and WBCs: 1%


Define hematopoiesis and differentiate between red and yellow bone marrow.

Formation of new blood cells; occurs constantly as blood cells have a limited life span; prenatal (yolk sac, liver, spleen, and bone marrow) and postnatal (bone marrow)
Red marrow: hematogenous (can make new cells)
Yellow marrow: filled with adipocytes (initially red but most turn to yellow, can turn back with severe blood loss)


Apply what you know about hematocrit and hemoglobin to basic clinical concepts such as anemia and HbA1C.

Anemia: RBCs are sickle shaped and are easily damaged; can get stuck, blocking oxygen from tissues; have slight resistance to malaria


Granulocytes vs Agranulocytes?

Granulocytes:Have granules in the cell (lysosomes, histamines)
Agranulocytes: no specific granules, but have lysosomes


Explain Sickle Cell Disease.

Mutation in Hb beta chain
Causes the RBCs to have sickle shape, get stuck in vessels, blocking oxygen from tissues


Pulmonary vs Systemic cardio systems?

Pulmonary: system that includes the lungs (where the blood is oxygenated)
Systemic: circuit that carries oxygenated blood throughout the rest of the body


Describe the 3 layers of blood vessels. Explain how the layers and structure vary in different vessels.

Tunica Intima: closest to the lumen; endothelium and subendothelial layer (loose CT and sometimes smooth muscle), larger arteries contain an internal elastic lamina
Tunica Media: smooth muscle; elastic fibers, reticular fibers, and proteoglycans; arteries may have an external elastic lamina (capillaries don't have smooth muscle in the tunica media)
Adventitia (Tunica Externa): Type 1 collagen and elastic fibers; vasa vasorum (can't get enough nutrients from lumen to external portions of vessels because of thick walls, another supply is needed) and autonomic nerve fibers located in larger vessels


What are the different sensory structures associated with the cardio system?

Baroreceptors: detect pressure (carotid sinus)
Chemoreceptors: detect O2, CO2, or pH (carotid body and aortic body)


Discuss the organization & functional significance of arteriovenous anastomoses/shunts.

In AV shunts, rather than go from arteriole to capillary, to venule, the shunt bypasses the capillary bed
The Portal system has 2 capillary beds (good for distributing hormones efficiently), but the shunt bypasses the capillary bed and continues on


Elastic Arteries

Endothelium with CT
Many elastic lamellae/smooth
Thin CT (vasa vasorum)
Conduct blood from heart forward using recoil


Muscular Arteries

Endothelium, CT/smooth, internal elastic lamina
Many smooth layers (less elastic)
Thin CT (VV maybe visible)
Distribute blood to all organs, steady pressure/flow (vasodilation and constriction)


Small Arteries

Endothelium: CT less smooth
3-10 layers of smooth
Thin CT
Distribute to arterioles, adjust flow



Endothelium: no CT/smooth
1-3 layers of smooth
Very thin CT
Resist/control flow to caps; determines systemic BP



Few pericytes
No Adventitia
Exchange metabolites (diffusion) to and from cells



Endothelium (no valves)
Pericytes and scattered smooth
No Adventitia
Drain cap beds; leukocytes exit vasculature


Small Veins

Endothelium: CT scattered smooth
Thin, 2-3 loose layers of smooth
Thick CT


Small Veins

Endothelium: CT scattered smooth
Thin, 2-3 loose layers of smooth
Thick CT
Collects blood from venules


Medium Veins

Endothelium: CT (valves)
3-5 distinct layers of smooth
Thick CT: longitudinal smooth
Carry blood to large veins (no backflow)


Large Veins

Endothelium: CT, smooth cells (Valves)
>5 layers of smooth with collagen
Thickest layer; bundled longitudinal smooth
Return blood to heart


What is Atherosclerosis?

Impacts elastic and muscular arteries
Intimal-based fibrofatty plaques made up of smooth muscle cells, collagen, lymphocytes, lipids, debris, etc.
Can lead to: significant stenosis (narrowing); plaque rupture leads to thrombus which leads to embolus; vessel wall weakening leads to an aneurysm and potential rupture of the vessel


List the different types of capillaries, their functional properties, and where they are located in the body.

Continuous: pinocytotic vesicles and basement membrane, lack fenestrae (may see pericytes); don't allow much movement through walls
Fenestrated: 80nm gaps in walls, continuous basement membrane, holes in the walls, found in areas with rapid exchange (endocrine glands)
Sinusoidal: larger, more irregular shape and path, multiple fenestrations, discontinuous basement membrane, leaky; found in bone marrow, liver, and spleen


Explain the relationship between pressure and flow and vessel structure.

The Pressure and Speed of Flow in decreasing order:
Large Artery
Medium-Sized Artery
Capillary (greatest permeability, no smooth muscle)


What are the stages of Clotting?

Primary Aggregation: platelets adhere to collagen and form a plug
Secondary Aggregation: platelets release substances that help increase the size of the plug
Blood Coagulation: substances released from damaged vessel endothelium and platelets give rise to fibrin meshwork (meshwork and trapped RBCs, WBCs, and platelets form a clot
Clot Retraction: clot contracts due to interaction between platelet actin and myosin (impermeable layer)
Clot Removal: tissue is restored and the clot dissolves by plasmin and other proteins; phagocytes eat the clot, restored to normal