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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (134):
1

Health

A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. Physical, psychological, and social.

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Hippocrates

Father of modern medicine who rejected ancient focus on mysticism and superstition. Came up with humoral theory: mental illness due to imbalance of four humors.

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Health Psychology

The application of psychological principles and research to the enhancement of health and prevention and treatment of illness. Its concerns include social conditions, biological factors, and even personality traits.

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Health Disparities

Preventable differences in the burden of disease, in jury, violence, or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged populations.

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Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)

A new federal law aimed at reducing the number of people in the US who don't have health insurance, as well as lowering the costs of healthcare.

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Trephination

An ancient medical intervention in which a hole was drilled into the human skull, presumably to allow "evil spirits" to escape.

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Humoral Theory

A concept proposed by Hippocrates that considered wellness a state of perfect equilibrium among four basic body fluids (humors). Sickness was believed to be the result of disturbances in the balance of humors.

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Epidemic

Literally meaning "among the people"; an epidemic disease is one that spreads rapidly among many individuals in a community at the same time. A pandemic disease affects people over a large geographical area.

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Mind-Body Dualism

The philosophical viewpoint that mind and body are separate entities that don't interact.

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Anatomical Theory

The theory that the origins of specific diseases are found in the internal organs, musculature, and skeletal system of the human body.

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Cellular Theory

Formulated in the 19th century, the theory that disease is the result of abnormalities in body cells.

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Germ Theory

The theory that disease is caused by viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms that invade body cells.

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Biomedical Model

The dominant view of the 20th century medicine that maintains illness always as a physical cause.

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Psychosomatic Medicine

An outdated branch of medicine that focused on the diagnosis and treatment of physical diseases caused by faulty psychological processes.

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Behavioral Medicine

An interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and biomedical science in preventing, diagnosing, and treating illness.

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Etiology

The scientific study of the causes or origins of specific diseases.

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Genomics

The study of structure, function, and mapping of the genetic material of organisms.

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Epigenetic

The effects of environmental forces on how genes are expressed.

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Life-Course Perspective

Theoretical perspective that focuses on age-related aspects of health and illness.

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Subjective Well-Being

The cognitive and emotional evaluation of a person's life.

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Birth Cohort

A group of people who, because they were born at about the same times, experience similar historical and social conditions.

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Social Culture Perspective

The viewpoint that it's impossible to understand a person fully without understanding his/her culture and ethnic identity.

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Gender Perspective

A focus on the study of gender-specific health behaviors, problems, and barriers to healthcare.

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Immigrant Paradox

The finding that, although low socioeconomic status usually predicts poor health; this is not true for Hispanics and other ethnic groups in the US.

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Ecological-Systems Approach

The viewpoint that nature is best understood as a hierarchy of systems, in which each system is simultaneously composed of smaller subsystems and larger, interrelated systems.

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Positive Health

The scientific study of health assets, which are factors that produce longer life, reduce illness, and increase overall well-being.

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Health Literacy

The ability to understand health info and use it to make good decisions about one's health.

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Massification

The transformation of a product or service that was once only available to the wealthy such that it becomes accessible to everyone. Applied to education and health, it's the idea that college can benefit everyone.

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Biopsychosocial Model

The viewpoint that health and other behaviors are determined by the interactions of biological factors (anything physical happening in the brain or body), psychological processes, social influences, and behaviors.

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Belief Bias

A form of faulty reasoning in which our expectations prevent us from seeing alternative explanations for our observations.

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Epidemiology

The scientific study of the frequency, distribution, and causes of a particular disease or other health outcome in a population.

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Descriptive Study

A research method in which researchers observe and record in-depth participants' behavior, often forming hypotheses that are later tested more systematically; includes case studies, interviews and surveys, and naturalistic observational studies.

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Case Study

A descriptive study in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing general principles.

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Survey

A questionnaire used to ascertain the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a group of people.

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Observational Study

A non-experimental research method in which a researcher observes and records the behavior of a research participant. Detect naturally occurring relations among variables (correlations) and enables predictions.

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Correlation Coefficient

A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables, and thus of how well one predicts the other. Direction is shown by + or -, stength is the #, closer to 1 is stronger.

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Scatterplot

A graphed cluster of data points, each of which represents the values of two variables in a descriptive study.

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Statistical Literacy

The ability to read and interpret statistics and to think critically about arguments that use statistics as evidence.

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Independent Variable

The factor in an experiment that an experimenter manipulates; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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Dependent Variable

The behavior or mental process in an experiment that may change in response to manipulations of the IV; the variable that is being measured.

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Random Assignment

Assigning research participants to groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences among the groups.

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Expectancy Effects

A form of bias in which the outcome of a study is influenced either by the researcher's expectations or by the participants' expectations.

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Double-Blind Study

A technique designed to prevent observer and participant expectancy effects in which neither the researcher nor the participants know the true purpose of the study or which participants have each condition.

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Quasi-Experiment

A study comparing two groups that differ naturally on a specific variable of interest at the outset of the study. Used when the variable cannot be manipulated or randomly assign participants to groups.

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Cross-Sectional Study

A study comparing representative groups of people of various ages on a particular DV.

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Longitudinal Study

A study in which a single group of people are observed over a long span of time. Time consuming, expensive to conduct, and results can be skewed bc people have dropped out.

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Heritability

The amount of variation in a trait among individuals that can be attributed to genes.

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Morbidity

As a measure of health, the number of cases of a specific illness, injury, or disability in a given group of people at a given time.

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Mortality

As a measure of health, the number of deaths due to a specific cause in a given group at a given time.

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Incidence

The number of new cases of a disease or condition that occur in a specific population within a defined time interval.

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Prevalence

The total number of diagnosed cases of a disease/condition that exist at a given time.

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Etiology

The scientific study of the causes or origins of specific diseases.

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Retrospective Study

A backward-looking study in which a group of people who have a certain disease/condition are compared to a group of people who are free of the disease/condition, for the purpose of identifying background risk factors that may have contributed to the disease/condition.

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Prospective Study

A forward-looking longitudinal study that begins with a healthy group of subjects and follows the development of a particular disease in this sample.

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Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT)

The gold standard for epidemiologists. A true experiment that tests the effects of one IV on individuals (sing-subject design) or on a group (community field trials). Measures difference between baseline and after treatment.

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Meta-Analysis

A quantitative technique that combines the results of many studies examining the same effect or phenomenon. Larger sample size and high validity and can be replicated.

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Relative Risk

A statistical indicator of the likelihood of a causal relationship between a particular health risk factor and a health outcome; computed as a ratio of the incidence (or prevalence) of a health condition in a group exposed to the risk factor to its incidence (or prevalence) in a group not exposed to the risk factor.

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Attributable Risk

The actual amount that a disease can be attributed to exposure to a particular risk factor. Attributable risk is determined by subtracting the incidence rate of a disease in people who have been exposed to a risk factor from the incidence rate of the disease in people who haven't been exposed.

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Evidence-Based Healthcare

The use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients or the delivery of health services.

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Critical Thinking

A questioning approach to information that doesn't blindly accept conclusions, examine underlying assumptions, and evaluates evidence.

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Cell

The basic unit of structure and function in living things. Prokaryotic (no nucleus-in bacteria and other single cell organisms) and eukaryotic (nucleus-in animals, plants, fungi).

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Tissue

A group of similar cells organized into a functional unit.

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Organ

A group of tissues working together to perform a specific function.

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Neuron

A nerve cell, including the cell body, dendrites, and axon.

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Synapse

The junction between one neuron's axon and the dendrites of an adjoining neuron, across which a nerve impulse may be transmitted.

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Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers released by neurons at synapses that diffuse across the synaptic gap and alter the electrical state of a receiving neuron to send a signal.

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Threshold

The minimum change in electrical activity required to trigger an action potential in a neuron. The neuron's reaction is an all-or-non response.

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Central Nervous System (CNS)

Consists of the brain and the spinal cord.

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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Contains the remaining nerves of the body. Divided into the somatic and autonomic NS.

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Somatic Nervous System

Includes the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body. Includes the nerves that carry messages from the eyes, ears, and other sense organs to the CNS, and from the CNS to the muscles and glands. Referred to as the voluntary NS bc the skeletal muscles that it activates are under voluntary control.

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Autonomic Nervous System

The nerves that link the CNS with the heart, intestines, and other internal organs. Also made up of two subdivisions: parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system. Referred to as the involuntary NS.

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Sympathetic Nervous System

Hypes the body up. Consists of groupings of neuron cell bodies called ganglia that run along the spinal cord and connect to the body's internal organs. Responsible for fight and flight system.

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

Calms the body down. The ganglia are not closely linked and tend to act more independently. This system has opposite effects than those of the sympathetic NS. Helps the body recover after arousal.

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Brainstem

The oldest and most central region of the brain; includes the medulla, pons, and reticular formation. Controls basic and involuntary life-support functions.

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Medulla

The brainstem region that controls heartbeat, breathing, salivation, coughing, and sneezing.

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Reticular Formation

A network of neuron running through the brainstem involved with alertness, arousal, and sleep.

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Thalamus

The brain's sensory switchboard; located on top of the brainstem, it routes sensory messages to the cerebral cortex except smell. Damage can cause blindness and other senses.

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Cerebellum

Located at the rear of the brain, it coordinates voluntary muscle movement and balance. Helpful in implicit memory.

79

Limbic System

A network of neurons surrounding the central core of the brain; associated with the emotions such as fear, aggression, sexual arousal, and pain. Includes the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. Also coordinates basic drives and memory.

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Amygdala

Two clusters of neurons in the limbic system that are linked to emotion, especially aggression and fear.

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Pons

Contains nuclei that help regulate sleep, breathing, swallowing, bladder control, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, posture, and most importantly helps coordinate movement.

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Hippocampus

A structure in the limbic system linked to memory, learning, and spatial orientation.

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Anterograde Amnesia

Unable to form new memories but can retain memory for previously learned skills.

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Hypothalamus

Under the thalamus; it influences hunger, thirst, body temperature, and sexual behavior; helps given the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. Directs several maintenance activities.

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Cerebral Cortex

The thin layer of cells that covers the cerebrum (cerebral hemisphere), the seat of conscious sensation and info processing. The body's ultimate control of info-processing center.

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Sensory Cortex

Lying at the front of the parietal lobes, the region of the cerebral cortex that processes body sensations such as touch.

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Motor Cortex

Lying at the rear of the frontal lobes, the region of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary movements.

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Association Cortex

Areas of the cerebral cortex not directly involved in sensory or motor functions; rather, they integrate multi sensory info and higher mental functions such as thinking and speaking.

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Hormones

Chemical messengers, released into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands, which have an effect on distant organs.

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Pituitary Gland

The master endocrine gland controlled by the hypothalamus; releases a variety of hormones that act on other glands throughout the body. Influences growth, sexual development reproduction, kidney functioning, and aging.

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Adrenal Glands

Lying above the kidneys, the pair of endocrine glands that secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol, which are hormones that arouse the body during moments of stress.

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Arteries

Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to other organs and tissues; a small artery is called an arteriole.

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Veins

Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart from the capillaries (smallest blood vessels).

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Bronchi

The pair of respiratory tubes that branch into progressively smaller passageways, the bronchioles, culminating in the air sacs within the lungs (alveoli).

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Cilia

The tiny hairs that line the air passageways in the nose, mouth, and trachea; moving in wave-like fashion, the cilia traps germs and forces them out of the respiratory system.

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Noncommunicable Disease (NCD)

A chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and asthma that is not passed from person to person.

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Digestive/Gastrointestinal System

The body's system for digesting food; includes the digestive tract (mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines), salivary glands, pancreas, and gallbladder.

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Antigen

A foreign substance that stimulates an immune response, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc.

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Lymphocytes

Antigen-fighting white blood cells produced in the bone marrow.

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Thymus

Secretes thymosin, a hormone that helps control the maturation and development of lymphocytes.

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Tonsils

Masses of lymphatic tissue that seem to function as a holding station for lymphocytes, as well as a garbage can for worn-out blood cells.

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Nonspecific Immunity

General defense that fights off any antigen, including those never before encountered.

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Specific Immunity

Occur only when a particular antigen has been encountered before, creating a kind of immunological memory for the intruder.

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Lymph Nodes

Glands that help your body fight infection. Contain filters for antigens. They expand which leads to swelling.

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Phagocytes

Large scavenger cells that prowl the blood and tissues of the body for antigens. They destroy antigens by engulfing and digesting them.

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Macrophages

Phagocytes found at the site of an infection, as well as in the lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs. These specialized WBC "sentries" pass into body tissues, where they hunt antigens and worn out cells.

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Natural Killer (NK) Cells

Smaller lymphocytes which patrol the body for diseased cells that have gone awry. They inject lethal toxins into the cells.

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B Cells

Lymphocytes that attack foreign substances by producing specific antibodies, or immunoglobins, which are proteins that chemically suppress the toxic effects of antigens, primarily viruses and bacteria. They create plasma (produce antibodies) and memory cells that remember antigens.

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T Cells

Lymphocytes that directly attack and kill antigens without the aid of antibodies.

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Cytokines

Protein molecules produces by immune cells that act on other cells to regulate immunity (include the interferons, interleukins, and tumor necrosis factors). Tells the brain where the infection is, hence how the brain and immune system communicate.

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Zygote

A fertilized egg cell.

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X Chromosome

The sex chromosome found in males and females (2 in females and 1 in males).

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Y Chromosome

The sex chromosome found in males only; contains a gene that triggers the testing to begin producing testosterone.

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Genome

The complete instructions for making an organism, including all the genetic material found in that organism's chromosomes.

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Stem Cell

Cells with the potential to develop into any other type of specialized cell.

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Embryo

The developing human organism from the 3rd through the 8th week after conception.

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Fetus

The developing human organism from the start of the 9th week after conception until birth.

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Genotype

The sum total of all the genes present in an individual.

119

Phenotype

A person's observable characteristics; determined by the interaction of the individual's genotype with the environment.

120

DNA Methylation

Transcribes, activates, silences, and in other ways alters the expression of genes and guides cells to their specialized roles. Methylation begins before birth and continues throughout life, altering how genes are expressed in response to environmental events, even after we are born.

121

Interneurons

Transmits signals from one neuron to the next (the connectors).

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Serotonin

Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. Undersupply linked to depression.

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Dopamine

Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. Oversupply linked to schizophrenia and undersupply linked to tremors and decreased mobility in Parkinson's and ADHD.

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Acetylcholine (ACh)

Enables muscle action, learning, and memory. ACh-producing neurons deteriorate in Alzheimer's.

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GABA

A major inhibitory NT. Undersupply linked to seizures, traumas, and insomnia.

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Norepinephrine

Helps control alertness and arousal. Undersupply can depress mood and can cause ADHD-like attentional problems.

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Glutamate

A major excitatory NT involved in memory. Oversupply can overstimulate the brain, producing migraines or seizures, which is why some people avoid MSG (monosodium glutamate) in food.

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Frontal Lobe

Involved in muscle movements, making plans and judgements.

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Parietal Lobe

Includes the sensory cortex; received info from skin and body.

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Endocrine System

The body's "slow" chemical communication system. A set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.

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Thyroid Gland

Helps regulate growth and metabolism.

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Pancreas

Regulates blood glucose levels. Produces glucagon and affects insulin production. Insulin controls the conversion of sugar and carbohydrates into energy.

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Teratogens

Substances such as viruses and chemicals that can damage the developing embryo or fetus.

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Refers to cognitive, behavioral, and body/brain structure abnormalities caused by exposure to alcohol in the fetal stage.