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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (103):
1

What is taxonomy

classifications of organisms

2

evolutionary independent unit that have the same morphology, reproduce to make fertile offspring offspring, all descendants of one common ancestor

species

3

random chance contributes natural disasters

genetic drift

4

What is evolutionary independent unit

evolutionary mechanisms separate from prepubtias

5

the movement of alleles between populations; occurs when individuals leave one population, join another, and breed

gene flow

6

3 criteria used to identify a species

1. morphology (look the same)
2. Reproduce fertile offspring
3. All decedents of one common ancestor

7

How many of the 3 criteria are needed to be considered a taxon a species

only need 2 criteria to be considered a species

8

What are the meanings of the two words in the specific name

Genus specie epithet (smallest breakdown)

9

Why are scientific names preferred over a common name

its more specific and common names can be misleading

10

List all levels in the Linnaean taxonomical hierarchy levels from domain to species

Domain (Archea,Bacteria, Eukaryia),Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Biggest---------->Smallest

11

Approximately how many species of all organisms have been described? Which group of animals has the largest number of specie

1.7 million organisms described and named. Estimated 6-100 million insects have largest species

12

Describe the relationship between taxonomy and phylogenetics

The more related an organism is the more overlap in taxonomy, phylogenies are the study of evolutionary relationships

13

What kinds of data are used to construct phylogenetic trees?

1. Morphological Data
2. Genetic Traits (RNA & DNA)
3. Development traits

14

Approximately how old is the earth?

4.6 billion years

15

When did life first evolve? How do we know?

-earth was more hospitable around 3.9 billion years ago
- banded oxidized iron formations are found in the rocks

16

What organisms formed the earliest fossils

3.5 billion years ago the first fossil pf prokaryotes

17

What is a stromatolite

complex bacterial communities

18

don't have nucleus, only ribosomes, chromosomes in cytoplasm, circular DNA, cell walls, small cells

Prokaryotes

19

Chromosomes, has nucleus, many membrane bound organelles, linear DNA, bigger cells, animal cells lack a cell wall

Eukaryotes

20

What are the two major lineages of prokaryotes??

Archea- extremehalophiles, hyperthermophiles
Bacteria- True Bacteria, e coli, cyanobacteria

21

Light, CO2, ex. cyanobacteria, plants, algae

photoautotroph

22

chemical bond, CO2, ex. some prokaryotes

Chemoautotroph

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light, organic compounds, ex. some prokaryotes

photoheterotroph

24

chemical bonds, organic compound, ex. human, animal, fungi, some bacteria and protists

chemoheterotroph

25

Why is Carbon (C) important to animals

-carbon is important because its the basis of all organic molecules
-comprimise all organisms because its able to form very strong bonds with a multitude of elements

26

Major places C is stored on earth

-atmospheric CO2
-soil
-sedimentary rock (20x)
-fossil fuels
-oceans
-living and dead organisms

27

What process removes CO2 from the atmosphere?

Photosynthesis

28

What process returns C to the atmosphere as CO2?

cellular respiration, burning fossil fuels, volcanoes

29

What process has of CO2 increased in the last 150-200 years and what are the global consequences of this increase in CO2?

burning of fossil fuels and wood which has caused increase in global temperature, acidification of oceans, increased sea levels, greenhouse effect

30

Animals form mutualistic relationships with organisms that employ 3 of the 4 nutritional modes

chemoautotrophs+ photoautotrophs+ chemoheterotroph- coral

31

Relationship between free O2 and time? What events followed the increase in atmospheric O2

With the increase of atmospheric O2 eukaryotes were able to evolve, then the first land plants, then first mammals were able to evolve

32

When did photosynthesis first evolve and how can we date this event?What group of organisms first evolved the ability to photosynthesize

2-2.8 BYA we can dat this by when eukaryotes evolved because they are aerobic organisms O2 began being produced by cyanobacteria; we date this because of rusted rocks 2.5 billion years ago

33

What are the consequences of the evolution of photosynthesis to animal biology?

1. extinction (almost) of anaerobic organisms
2. new life eukaryo

34

When did the first eukaryotes appear in fossil record

2.1 billion years ago

35

What are derived traits?

modified from ancestral trait (vertebral column in mammals)

36

What are ancestral traits?

characteristics of ancestor (feathers, hair)

37

what is Parsimony, and how does it relate to phylogenetic trees

Parsimony is the principle that the simplest answer is the most likely with the least amount of changes is the most parsimonious

38

Name the kingdoms listed in Whattaker's 5 kingdom system

plantae, fungi, animalia, protesta, manera

39

What is the problem with the 5 kingdom system

organisms in manera are nothing alike

40

According to the endosymbiosis theory, how did mitochondria in eukaryotes originate? What was mitochondria before it became mitochondria (bacteria)

the theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from prokaryotes that were engulfed by host cells and took up a symbiotic existence within those cells, a process termed primary endosymbiosis. In some eukaryotes, chloroplasts may have originated by secondary endosymbiosis; that is when a cell engulfed a chloroplast-containing protist and retained chloroplasts

41

Why is it accurate to refer to yourself as chimeric? Why are you, along with every eukaryote, a bag of bacteria

we are a compilation of eukarya and bacteria
-full of mitochondria
- have good digestive bacteria that aid in digestion and immune system

42

What are the three major eras in geological time? What events mark the boundaries between them

1. Paleozoic- cambrian explosion begins it (animals appeared)
2. Mesozoic- middle animals end of the permian extinction "mother of mass extinctions" 90% all animals extinct
3. Cenozoic- recent animals, end cretaceous extinction 60-80% life

43

What are the first and geological periods of the paleozoic and the last period of the mesozoic

first paleozoic- cambrian explosion
Last paleozoic- permian extinction(dinosaurs begin) began mesozoic--> last mesozoic end and cretaceous extinction---> cerazoic

44

During which geological period do we find a sudden appearance of most animal groups? About how long ago was that

cambrian explosion---> 3.5 BYA

45

2 major extinction events

Permian extinction- largest "mother of all extinctions"
End Cretaceous- End of dinosaurs

46

One common ancestor

monophyletic

47

includes ancestors but not all descendants

paraphyletic

48

includes descendants but not a common ancestor

polyphyletic

49

What is convergent evolution, how does it contribute to paraphyletic lineages

similar traits in distantly related groups as a result of natural selection (independent evolution)
Ex. sharks and dolphins both had the same evolutionary pressure and although they are not related they have same body shape

50

Explain why the protists are classified as paraphyletic

classified as things they are not, so the ancestors are al included but not all the decedents

51

What other characteristics make protists a problematic group

-huge over 600,000 organisms
-should not be a single kingdom
-be diverse

52

What is secondary endosymbiosis and how did it contribute to the diversity of protists

symbiosis between a predatory protist and a photosynthetic protist. leads to chloroplasts with 4 membranes and is important in the evolution and diversity of protists

53

What are unique traits of the excavata?

belong to eukaryote
-groove that filters food, possess vestigial (non-functional) mitochondria, anaerobic, parasites

54

Diplomonads

2 nucleus 1 creature
giardia spp.

55

Parabasla

all parasitic
ex. trichomonas vagunalis

56

How can you become infected with giardia (and get giardiasis)

by drinking water or touching feces infected by the protist
-giardiasis intestinal disease)

57

what is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease

trichomoniasis

58

What organism causes trichomoniasis? What are the symptoms for men and women

Trichonmonas Vaginalis
women: lives attached to epithelia of cervix
male: prostate/ urethra

59

What 2 taxa of protists are alveolata

1. Dinoflafellates: super abundant photosynthetic
2. Apicomplexa: apex (tip) full of a complex of organelles specialized in penetrating host cells

60

3 reasons why dinoflagellates are ecologically important

1. form symbiotic relationships with coral
2. Base of some food webs
-red tides
3. form crimson tides

61

Why are the apicomplexans called apicomplexans

api (full of) complexons (complex) because the tips of the protists one full of very complex organelles

62

What disease is caused by Plasmodium? What two organisms are hosts to this disease- causing organisms

maleria
humans and mosquitos are the host

63

What organisms cause amoebic dysentary?

Entomeoba histolytica- causes "montezumas revenge" they belong to amoebozoa

64

both organisms gain something from the relationship (+/+)

mutualism

65

3 examples of mutualism

1. dinoflaggelettes and coral
2. cows and microbes
3. bees and pollination

66

4 types of interactions

1. Parasitism
2. Parasitoidism
3. Herbivory
4. Predation

67

parasite benefits, host doesn't
ex.

Parasitism
ex. birds lay their eggs in other species nests & induce other species to raise young

68

Kills host, often an insect

Parasitoidism
ex. wasp

69

plant eaters consume plant tissues

Herbivory (animal +, plants -)
ex. caterpillars chew leaves

70

when predator + kills and consumes all or most of the prey -

Predation
ex. lions eat zebras

71

parasites vs. parasitoids

-parasites live at the expense of another organism
-parasitoids lay their eggs and kill the host

72

ectoparasite vs. endoparasite

outside (tick)
inside (malaria)

73

Competition

(-,-) both organisms suffer
reduced growth or reproduction when shared resources are limited

74

Intraspecific Competition

competition within species
(2 grasshoppers)

75

Interspecific Competition

between species (grasshopper + cow)

76

occurs when two species interact in a way that confers fitness benefits both

Mutualism (+,+)

77

one species benefits but the other species is unaffected

commensalism (+, -)

78

when individuals use the same resources resulting in lower fitness for both

Competition (-,-)

79

when one organism eats or absorbs nutrients from another. The interaction increases the consumers fitness but decreases the victims fitness

Consumption (+,-)

80

plants and pollination

mutualism

81

lion eating zebra
parasite living in host
parasite killing host

Consumption

82

cheetahs vs. lion

competition

83

What are the traits that define animals

1. structure
2. nutrition
3. development
4. genetic

84

-multi-cellular
-contain collagen protein rich fiber connecting bodies together
- muscle and nervous tissue
-blastula
-gastrula

Structure

85

chemoheterotrophs
-most inject food (tapeworms don't)

Nutrition

86

-large, non-motile eggs & small motile sperm for gametes

Development

87

in all animals the transformation from a zygote to adult is guided by Hox genes

Genetics

88

-contain collagen protein rich fiber connecting bodies together
- muscle and nervous tissue
-blastula
-gastrula

unique to animals

89

a ball of cells typically surrounding a fluid-filled cavity. Th blastula is formed by cleavage of a zygote and undergoes gastrulations

blastula

90

an embryo at the stage following the blastula, when it is a hollow cup-shaped structure having three layers of cells

gastrula

91

diagram to distinguish the components of a gastrula

Draw it out

92

class of genes found in several animal phyla, including vertebra, that are expressed in a distinctive pattern along the anterior-posterior axis in early embryo and control formation of specific structures

Hox Genes

93

genes that affect embryo development by specifying the character of a body segment or part

Homeotic

94

very conserved nucleotide sequence that is often found in genes that control development. The sequence codes for a section of the transcription factor that binds to DNA

homeobox

95

many planes of symmetry or ways to divide into equal halves

Radial symmetry

96

one way to divide into 2 equal halves

bilateral symmetry

97

the formation in animals of a distinct anterior region (head) where sense organs and a mouth are clustered

cephalization

98

cephalization occurs with which symmetry

bilateral

99

Advantages of cephalization

-balance
-movement
-information (locate food, predators, find mates)

100

group of cells in the embryo that give rise to specific organs

Embryonic tissue layer

101

outside of skin- form outer covering and nervous system

Ectoderm

102

inside skin- form GI tract and respiratory system

Endoderm

103

Middle skin- forms muscle and other organs

Mesoderm