Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (103)
What is taxonomy
classifications of organisms
evolutionary independent unit that have the same morphology, reproduce to make fertile offspring offspring, all descendants of one common ancestor
random chance contributes natural disasters
What is evolutionary independent unit
evolutionary mechanisms separate from prepubtias
the movement of alleles between populations; occurs when individuals leave one population, join another, and breed
3 criteria used to identify a species
1. morphology (look the same)
2. Reproduce fertile offspring
3. All decedents of one common ancestor
How many of the 3 criteria are needed to be considered a taxon a species
only need 2 criteria to be considered a species
What are the meanings of the two words in the specific name
Genus specie epithet (smallest breakdown)
Why are scientific names preferred over a common name
its more specific and common names can be misleading
List all levels in the Linnaean taxonomical hierarchy levels from domain to species
Domain (Archea,Bacteria, Eukaryia),Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Approximately how many species of all organisms have been described? Which group of animals has the largest number of specie
1.7 million organisms described and named. Estimated 6-100 million insects have largest species
Describe the relationship between taxonomy and phylogenetics
The more related an organism is the more overlap in taxonomy, phylogenies are the study of evolutionary relationships
What kinds of data are used to construct phylogenetic trees?
1. Morphological Data
2. Genetic Traits (RNA & DNA)
3. Development traits
Approximately how old is the earth?
4.6 billion years
When did life first evolve? How do we know?
-earth was more hospitable around 3.9 billion years ago
- banded oxidized iron formations are found in the rocks
What organisms formed the earliest fossils
3.5 billion years ago the first fossil pf prokaryotes
What is a stromatolite
complex bacterial communities
don't have nucleus, only ribosomes, chromosomes in cytoplasm, circular DNA, cell walls, small cells
Chromosomes, has nucleus, many membrane bound organelles, linear DNA, bigger cells, animal cells lack a cell wall
What are the two major lineages of prokaryotes??
Archea- extremehalophiles, hyperthermophiles
Bacteria- True Bacteria, e coli, cyanobacteria
Light, CO2, ex. cyanobacteria, plants, algae
chemical bond, CO2, ex. some prokaryotes
light, organic compounds, ex. some prokaryotes
chemical bonds, organic compound, ex. human, animal, fungi, some bacteria and protists
Why is Carbon (C) important to animals
-carbon is important because its the basis of all organic molecules
-comprimise all organisms because its able to form very strong bonds with a multitude of elements
Major places C is stored on earth
-sedimentary rock (20x)
-living and dead organisms
What process removes CO2 from the atmosphere?
What process returns C to the atmosphere as CO2?
cellular respiration, burning fossil fuels, volcanoes
What process has of CO2 increased in the last 150-200 years and what are the global consequences of this increase in CO2?
burning of fossil fuels and wood which has caused increase in global temperature, acidification of oceans, increased sea levels, greenhouse effect