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1

What is taxonomy

classifications of organisms

2

evolutionary independent unit that have the same morphology, reproduce to make fertile offspring offspring, all descendants of one common ancestor

species

3

random chance contributes natural disasters

genetic drift

4

What is evolutionary independent unit

evolutionary mechanisms separate from prepubtias

5

the movement of alleles between populations; occurs when individuals leave one population, join another, and breed

gene flow

6

3 criteria used to identify a species

1. morphology (look the same)
2. Reproduce fertile offspring
3. All decedents of one common ancestor

7

How many of the 3 criteria are needed to be considered a taxon a species

only need 2 criteria to be considered a species

8

What are the meanings of the two words in the specific name

Genus specie epithet (smallest breakdown)

9

Why are scientific names preferred over a common name

its more specific and common names can be misleading

10

List all levels in the Linnaean taxonomical hierarchy levels from domain to species

Domain (Archea,Bacteria, Eukaryia),Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Biggest---------->Smallest

11

Approximately how many species of all organisms have been described? Which group of animals has the largest number of specie

1.7 million organisms described and named. Estimated 6-100 million insects have largest species

12

Describe the relationship between taxonomy and phylogenetics

The more related an organism is the more overlap in taxonomy, phylogenies are the study of evolutionary relationships

13

What kinds of data are used to construct phylogenetic trees?

1. Morphological Data
2. Genetic Traits (RNA & DNA)
3. Development traits

14

Approximately how old is the earth?

4.6 billion years

15

When did life first evolve? How do we know?

-earth was more hospitable around 3.9 billion years ago
- banded oxidized iron formations are found in the rocks

16

What organisms formed the earliest fossils

3.5 billion years ago the first fossil pf prokaryotes

17

What is a stromatolite

complex bacterial communities

18

don't have nucleus, only ribosomes, chromosomes in cytoplasm, circular DNA, cell walls, small cells

Prokaryotes

19

Chromosomes, has nucleus, many membrane bound organelles, linear DNA, bigger cells, animal cells lack a cell wall

Eukaryotes

20

What are the two major lineages of prokaryotes??

Archea- extremehalophiles, hyperthermophiles
Bacteria- True Bacteria, e coli, cyanobacteria

21

Light, CO2, ex. cyanobacteria, plants, algae

photoautotroph

22

chemical bond, CO2, ex. some prokaryotes

Chemoautotroph

23

light, organic compounds, ex. some prokaryotes

photoheterotroph

24

chemical bonds, organic compound, ex. human, animal, fungi, some bacteria and protists

chemoheterotroph

25

Why is Carbon (C) important to animals

-carbon is important because its the basis of all organic molecules
-comprimise all organisms because its able to form very strong bonds with a multitude of elements

26

Major places C is stored on earth

-atmospheric CO2
-soil
-sedimentary rock (20x)
-fossil fuels
-oceans
-living and dead organisms

27

What process removes CO2 from the atmosphere?

Photosynthesis

28

What process returns C to the atmosphere as CO2?

cellular respiration, burning fossil fuels, volcanoes

29

What process has of CO2 increased in the last 150-200 years and what are the global consequences of this increase in CO2?

burning of fossil fuels and wood which has caused increase in global temperature, acidification of oceans, increased sea levels, greenhouse effect

30

Animals form mutualistic relationships with organisms that employ 3 of the 4 nutritional modes

chemoautotrophs+ photoautotrophs+ chemoheterotroph- coral