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1

mitosis

process by which body cells replicate for growth and development and cell replacement of an organism

2

meiosis

process by which gametes are formed for the reproduction of the organism

3

gestational period

9 months (38-42 weeks)

4

implantation

begins 6 days after fertilization

5

Stages of prenatal development

ovum (conception - 14 days)
embryo (2 wks - 8wks)
fetus (9 wks - end of pregnancy)

6

endoderm

inner germ layer, epithelial inner linings of GI and respiratory tracts, endocrine glands, and auditory canal

7

yolk sac

aids in transfer of maternal nutrients and O2 to embryo before placenta forms

8

decidua

uterine lining during pregnancy; provides nutritional support for developing embryo before placenta; has a fetal side and maternal side

9

decidua vera

aka parietalis; lines the remainder of the uterus; "the walls of a house"

10

decidua basalis

portion of the decidua where implantation (nidation) takes place; the base; chorionic villi anchored here

11

decidua capsularis

portion that covers blastocyst after implantation; fuses with chorion as pregnancy advances; covers the embryo as it bulges into the uterine cavity; "the roof"

12

chorion

OUTER membrane which blends with fetal portion of placenta

13

amnion

INNER membrane which blends with the fetal umbilical cord

14

mesoderm

connective tissue, teeth (except for enamel), muscles, blood, and vascular systems

15

ectoderm

outside germ layer, skin, nails, nervous system, and teeth enamel

16

first organ system to function in the developing human

cardiovascular system

17

hemodynamics

blood flows from area of higher pressure to lower pressure

18

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

preserves function of ovarian corpus luteum to ensure sufficient levels of EST. and PROGEST. to maintain pregnancy
-miscarriage occurs if this stops before placenta produces sufficient est. & progest.

19

estrogen

stimulates uterine growth and extra-placental blood flow

20

progesterone

maintains endometrium; decreases contractility of uterus; stimulates maternal metabolism and development of breast alveoli

21

fetal viability

capacity of fetus to live outside of uterus at earliest gestational age (usually 20+ weeks after conception, 500 g or more)

22

gravidity

# of pregnancies REGARDLESS OF OUTCOME

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parity

# of pregnancies carried to 20 weeks (regardless of outcome, i.e. stillbirth)

24

G'T'PAL

# of pregnancies carried to term, 37+ weeks gestation

25

GTP'A'L

# of abortions, spontaneous or therapeutic, before 20 weeks

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GTPA'L'

# of currently living children

27

Nagele's Rule

day of LMP - 3 months + 7 days + 1 YEAR = due date

28

iron

best absorbed between meals with calcium; 30 mg/day; red meat, beef liver, fish, poultry, dried peas, beans, seafood, dark leafy greens, iron-fortified cereals

29

folic acid

600 mg/day; lentils, dried beans, peas, nuts, avocado, dark leafy greens, citrus fruits and juices

30

calcium

essential for absorption/metabolism of Vitamin D; 1000 mg/day; milk, fortified OJ, veggies, dark leafy greens, legumes, fortified soy milk

31

protein

71 mg/day

32

typical changes in maternal VS

Hgb: 11+
Hct: 33+
Platelets: 150,000-400,000 3-5 days after birth, then increases rapidly
WBCs: 5,000-15,000
Plasma: 2400 (40-50% increase)

33

toxoplasmosis

caused by cat litter, raw uncooked meat, unpasteurized milk

34

Group Beta Streptococcus

leading cause of life-threatening perinatal infections
-transmission occurs during vaginal delivery
-permanent neurological disability can result

35

Haegar's sign

softening and compression of lower uterus at 6-12 weeks

36

Chadwick's sign

deepened violet bluish color of cervix and vaginal mucosa at 6-8 weeks

37

Goodell's sign

increased softening of cervical tip at 5th week

38

ballottement

rebound of unengaged fetus

39

Braxton-Hicks contractions

"false labor" ; painless, irregular, usually relieved by walking

40

home pregnancy test

look for hCG; can be detected 7-10 days after conception; most accurate to use first voided specimen in the AM

41

ultrasounds

can confirm pregnancy at 5-6 weeks

42

x-ray

can confirm pregnancy at 16 weeks

43

certified nurse-midwife

RN's with education in the two disciplines of nursing and midwifery
-Master's level

44

Direct entry Midwives

Trained in midwifery schools, colleges, or universities; a nursing degree is not required; bachelor’s level

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obstetrician

See low and high risk pregnant women for care that involves pharmacological and medical management of problems, as well as use of technological procedures

46

physician

Provide care for primarily low-risk pregnant women and refer high-risk women to obstetricians

47

doula

trained to provide physical, emotional, and informational support to women and their partners during L&D; NOT involved with clinical tasks

48

amniocentesis

done between 13th and 24th weeks of pregnancy; amniotic fluid drawn out and tested for alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

49

chorionic villi sampling

done b/w 10th and 12th week of pregnancy; tests for chromosomal abnormalities

50

percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS)

tested fetal blood for chromosomes in cases where results are needed STAT and/or when amniocentesis or CVS test results are ambiguous

51

weight gain for normal BMI

25-35 lbs

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weight gain for overweight BMI

15-25 lbs

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weight gain for underweight BMI

28-40 lbs

54

weight gain for multiples (twins +)

35-45 lbs

55

hyperemesis gravidarum

prolonged, severe N/V in pregnancy that leads to dehydration, ketonuria, electrolyte imbalances, and weight loss

56

pyrosis

caused by PROGESTERONE decreasing smooth muscle contractility

57

operculum

mucous plug; develops from leucorrhea to prevent bacteria entry

58

leucorrhea

whitish vaginal discharge

59

chloasma

blotchy spots of darker skin; common skin change in pregnancy

60

epulis

"pregnancy tumor"; lesion identical to a pyogenic granuloma that only occurs during pregnancy

61

diastasis recti abdominis

the large abdominal muscles separate during pregnancy

62

ptyalism

hypersalivation

63

acroesthesia

excessive physical sensitivity, esp. of the skin