Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (77):
Believe that people can live in harmony without any form of authority.
a system of government in which the people rule. (ordinary people want to rule themselves and are capable of doing so)
rule by the few, where a minority holds power over a majority (aristocracy)
rule by the one, such as where power rests in the hands of a king or queen.
a form of political decision making in which policies are decided by the people themselves rather than by their representatives. (only possible in small communities)
indirect democracy in which the people rule through elected representatives (for large societies)
The basic principle of democracy that the people are the ultimate source of government authority and of the policies that government leaders make. ( what the government does is determined by what the people want)
describe all forms of government characterized by rule by a single person or by a group with total power. (monarchy, a military with tyranny, or a theocracy)
the form of political decision making in which policies are decided on the basis of what a majority of the people want.
elevates the preferences or interests of the few over the many.
the principle that each person carries equal weight in the conduct of the public business.
1965 voting rights act
a law that banned racial discrimination in voting across the united states.
guarantees of equal treatment by government officials, regarding political rights, the judicial system, and public programs.
the principles that citizens in a democracy are protected from government interference in the exercise of a range of basic freedoms. (speech, assembly and association. etc.)
The idea that government is the result of an agreement among people to form one, and that people have the right to create an entirely new government if the terms of the contract have been violated by the existing one.
a system in which significant governmental powers are divided between a central government and smaller territorial units such as the states.
the provision in article VI (6) of the constitution states that the constitution and the laws and treaties of the united states are the supreme law of the land, taking precedence over state laws and constitutions when they are in conflict.
article I section 8 of the constitution, also called the necessary and proper clause; gives congress the authority to make whatever laws are necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated responsibilities.
bill of rights
the first 10 amendments to the u.s. constitution, concerned with the protection of basic liberties.
separation of powers
the distribution of government legislative, executive, and judicial powers to separate branches of govenment.
checks and balances
constitutional principle that each of the separate branches of government has power to hinder actions of other branches as a way to restrain an overreaching government and prevent tyranny.
the freedom to use, accumulate, and dispose of a valuable asset subject to rules established by a government.
an economic system characterized by competitive markets and private ownership of a society's productive assets; a form of capitalism
supporters of the constitution
opposed the constitution
the power of the supreme court to declare actions of the other branches and level of government unconstitutional
a document sometimes issued by the president in connection with the signing of a bill from congress that sets out the president's understanding of the new law and how executive branch officials should carry it out.
representative democracy characterized by popular sovereignty, liberty, and political equality.
suppression of the rights and liberties of a minority by the majority.
popular term for the system of legally sanctioned racial segregation that existed in the american south from the end of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century.
a loose association of states or territorial units in which very little or no power is lodged in a central government.
a document specifying the basic organization, powers, and limits of government passed by the 2nd continental congress in the midst of the revolutionary war in 1977.
articles of confederation
the first constitution of the united states, adopted during the last stages of the revolutionary war, created a system of government with most power lodged in the states and little in the central government.
a political doctrine advocating limited government based on popular consent but protected against majority tyranny.
the abuse of inalienable rights of citizens by government.
the virginia plan
proposal by the large states at the constitutional convention to create a strong central government with power in the government apportioned to the states on the basis of population.
new jersey plan
proposal of the smaller states at the constitutional convention to create a government with slightly more power in a central government than under the articles, with the states equally represented in a unicameral national legislature.
connecticut compromise (great compromise)
compromise between the new jersey and virginia plans formulated by the connecticut delegates at the constitutional convention; called for a lower legislative house based on population size and an upper house based on equal representation of the states.
representatives selected in each of the states, their numbers based on each state's total number of its senators and representatives; a majority of the electoral college votes elects the president.
affordable care act (ACA)
the far-reaching health care reform law passed in 2010. the act was aimed at increasing access to health insurance for all americans and driving down the rising, burdensome cost of healthcare in the united states.
a system in which a central government has complete power over its constituent units or states.
exclusion of the states from actions that might interfere with federal authority or statutes.
part of the 10th amendment to the constitution that says those powers not given to the federal government and not prohibited to the states by the constitution are reserved for the states and the people.
powers of a government to protect the health, safety, and general well-being of its people.
powers under the constitution that are shared by the federal government and the states.
term used to refer to relationships among the states.
full faith and credit clause
the provision in article IV (4), section 1, of the constitution which provides that states must respect the public acts, laws, and judicial rulings of other states.
agreements among states to cooperate on solving mutual problems; requires approval by congress.
the view of american federalism that hold that the constitution created a system in which the national government is supreme, relative to the states, and that it granted that government a broad range of powers and responsibilities.
states rights position
the view of american federalism that holds that the constitution created a system of dual sovereignty in which the national government and the states governments are sovereign in their own spheres
a system of federalism in which state and national powers are neatly divided between the national and state governments.
an attempt by states to declare national laws or actions null and void.
civil war amendments
the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments to the constitution, adopted immediately after the civil war, each of which represented the imposition of a national claim over that of the states.
due process clause
the section of the fourteenth amendment that prohibits states from depriving anyone of life, liberty, or property "without due process of law" a guarantee against arbitrary or unfair government action.
equal protection clause
the section of the fourteenth amendment that provides for equal treatment by government of people residing within the united states and each of its states.
the social and economic programs of the administration of president Franklin D Roosevelt in response to the great depression.
civil rights act of 1964
law that banned discrimination based on race, sex, or national origin in public accommodations, and gave the attorney general the power to sue local and state governments that maintained racially segregated schools.
the idea that some of the powers and responsibilities of the national government ought to be distributed back to the states.
temporary assistance for needy families (TANF)
federal welfare program that provides income and services to poor families via state block grants. the program has benefit time limits and a work requirement.
federalism in which the powers and responsibilities of the states and the national government are intertwined and in which they work together to solve common problems.
that aspect of federalism having to do with grants to the states.
funds from the national government to state and local governments to help pay for programs created by the national government.
federal aid to the states and localities clearly specifying what the money can be used for.
federal grants to the states to be used for general activities.
federal grants with provisions requiring that states and local governments follow certain policies in order to obtain funds.
a formal order from the national government that the states carry out certain policies.
requirements imposed by the federal government on the states to perform certain actions, with not enough money provided to fulfill the requirements.
laboratories of democracy
the ability of the states in the us federal system to experiment with policy ideas. the success or failure of state policies can then be a template for national policy action.
pertaining to the statistical study and description of a population.
gross domestic product
monetary value of all goods and services produced in a nation each year, excluding income residents earn abroad.
median household income
the midpoint of all households ranked by income.
the federal governments calculation of the amount of income families of various sizes need to stay out of poverty.
an economic system characterized by private ownership of productive assets where most decisions about how to use these assets are made by individuals and firms operating in a market rather than by government.
an organization representing employees that bargains with employers over wages, benefits, and working conditions.
the tendency of information, products, and financial capital to flow across national borders, with the effects of more tightly integrating the global economy.
the set of core beliefs in a country that help shape how people behave politically and what they believe the government should do.