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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (77):
1

anarchists

Believe that people can live in harmony without any form of authority.

2

democracy

a system of government in which the people rule. (ordinary people want to rule themselves and are capable of doing so)

3

oligarchy

rule by the few, where a minority holds power over a majority (aristocracy)

4

monarchy

rule by the one, such as where power rests in the hands of a king or queen.

5

direct democracy

a form of political decision making in which policies are decided by the people themselves rather than by their representatives. (only possible in small communities)

6

representative democracy

indirect democracy in which the people rule through elected representatives (for large societies)

7

popular sovereignty

The basic principle of democracy that the people are the ultimate source of government authority and of the policies that government leaders make. ( what the government does is determined by what the people want)

8

autocracy

describe all forms of government characterized by rule by a single person or by a group with total power. (monarchy, a military with tyranny, or a theocracy)

9

majority rule

the form of political decision making in which policies are decided on the basis of what a majority of the people want.

10

minority rule

elevates the preferences or interests of the few over the many.

11

political equality

the principle that each person carries equal weight in the conduct of the public business.

12

1965 voting rights act

a law that banned racial discrimination in voting across the united states.

13

civil rights

guarantees of equal treatment by government officials, regarding political rights, the judicial system, and public programs.

14

political liberty

the principles that citizens in a democracy are protected from government interference in the exercise of a range of basic freedoms. (speech, assembly and association. etc.)

15

social contract

The idea that government is the result of an agreement among people to form one, and that people have the right to create an entirely new government if the terms of the contract have been violated by the existing one.

16

federalism

a system in which significant governmental powers are divided between a central government and smaller territorial units such as the states.

17

supremacy clause

the provision in article VI (6) of the constitution states that the constitution and the laws and treaties of the united states are the supreme law of the land, taking precedence over state laws and constitutions when they are in conflict.

18

elastic clause

article I section 8 of the constitution, also called the necessary and proper clause; gives congress the authority to make whatever laws are necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated responsibilities.

19

bill of rights

the first 10 amendments to the u.s. constitution, concerned with the protection of basic liberties.

20

separation of powers

the distribution of government legislative, executive, and judicial powers to separate branches of govenment.

21

checks and balances

constitutional principle that each of the separate branches of government has power to hinder actions of other branches as a way to restrain an overreaching government and prevent tyranny.

22

property rights

the freedom to use, accumulate, and dispose of a valuable asset subject to rules established by a government.

23

free enterprise

an economic system characterized by competitive markets and private ownership of a society's productive assets; a form of capitalism

24

federalists

supporters of the constitution

25

anti-federalists

opposed the constitution

26

judicial review

the power of the supreme court to declare actions of the other branches and level of government unconstitutional

27

signing statement

a document sometimes issued by the president in connection with the signing of a bill from congress that sets out the president's understanding of the new law and how executive branch officials should carry it out.

28

liberal democracy

representative democracy characterized by popular sovereignty, liberty, and political equality.

29

majority tyranny

suppression of the rights and liberties of a minority by the majority.

30

jim crow

popular term for the system of legally sanctioned racial segregation that existed in the american south from the end of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century.

31

confederation

a loose association of states or territorial units in which very little or no power is lodged in a central government.

32

constitution

a document specifying the basic organization, powers, and limits of government passed by the 2nd continental congress in the midst of the revolutionary war in 1977.

33

articles of confederation

the first constitution of the united states, adopted during the last stages of the revolutionary war, created a system of government with most power lodged in the states and little in the central government.

34

republicanism

a political doctrine advocating limited government based on popular consent but protected against majority tyranny.

35

tyranny

the abuse of inalienable rights of citizens by government.

36

the virginia plan

proposal by the large states at the constitutional convention to create a strong central government with power in the government apportioned to the states on the basis of population.

37

new jersey plan

proposal of the smaller states at the constitutional convention to create a government with slightly more power in a central government than under the articles, with the states equally represented in a unicameral national legislature.

38

connecticut compromise (great compromise)

compromise between the new jersey and virginia plans formulated by the connecticut delegates at the constitutional convention; called for a lower legislative house based on population size and an upper house based on equal representation of the states.

39

electoral college

representatives selected in each of the states, their numbers based on each state's total number of its senators and representatives; a majority of the electoral college votes elects the president.

40

affordable care act (ACA)

the far-reaching health care reform law passed in 2010. the act was aimed at increasing access to health insurance for all americans and driving down the rising, burdensome cost of healthcare in the united states.

41

unitary system

a system in which a central government has complete power over its constituent units or states.

42

preemption

exclusion of the states from actions that might interfere with federal authority or statutes.

43

reservation clause

part of the 10th amendment to the constitution that says those powers not given to the federal government and not prohibited to the states by the constitution are reserved for the states and the people.

44

police powers

powers of a government to protect the health, safety, and general well-being of its people.

45

concurrent powers

powers under the constitution that are shared by the federal government and the states.

46

horizontal federalism

term used to refer to relationships among the states.

47

full faith and credit clause

the provision in article IV (4), section 1, of the constitution which provides that states must respect the public acts, laws, and judicial rulings of other states.

48

interstate compacts

agreements among states to cooperate on solving mutual problems; requires approval by congress.

49

nationalist position

the view of american federalism that hold that the constitution created a system in which the national government is supreme, relative to the states, and that it granted that government a broad range of powers and responsibilities.

50

states rights position

the view of american federalism that holds that the constitution created a system of dual sovereignty in which the national government and the states governments are sovereign in their own spheres

51

dual federalism

a system of federalism in which state and national powers are neatly divided between the national and state governments.

52

nullification

an attempt by states to declare national laws or actions null and void.

53

civil war amendments

the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments to the constitution, adopted immediately after the civil war, each of which represented the imposition of a national claim over that of the states.

54

due process clause

the section of the fourteenth amendment that prohibits states from depriving anyone of life, liberty, or property "without due process of law" a guarantee against arbitrary or unfair government action.

55

equal protection clause

the section of the fourteenth amendment that provides for equal treatment by government of people residing within the united states and each of its states.

56

new deal

the social and economic programs of the administration of president Franklin D Roosevelt in response to the great depression.

57

civil rights act of 1964

law that banned discrimination based on race, sex, or national origin in public accommodations, and gave the attorney general the power to sue local and state governments that maintained racially segregated schools.

58

devolution

the idea that some of the powers and responsibilities of the national government ought to be distributed back to the states.

59

temporary assistance for needy families (TANF)

federal welfare program that provides income and services to poor families via state block grants. the program has benefit time limits and a work requirement.

60

cooperative federalism

federalism in which the powers and responsibilities of the states and the national government are intertwined and in which they work together to solve common problems.

61

fiscal federalism

that aspect of federalism having to do with grants to the states.

62

grants-in-aid

funds from the national government to state and local governments to help pay for programs created by the national government.

63

categorical grants

federal aid to the states and localities clearly specifying what the money can be used for.

64

block grants

federal grants to the states to be used for general activities.

65

conditional grants

federal grants with provisions requiring that states and local governments follow certain policies in order to obtain funds.

66

mandate

a formal order from the national government that the states carry out certain policies.

67

unfunded mandates

requirements imposed by the federal government on the states to perform certain actions, with not enough money provided to fulfill the requirements.

68

laboratories of democracy

the ability of the states in the us federal system to experiment with policy ideas. the success or failure of state policies can then be a template for national policy action.

69

demographic

pertaining to the statistical study and description of a population.

70

gross domestic product

monetary value of all goods and services produced in a nation each year, excluding income residents earn abroad.

71

median household income

the midpoint of all households ranked by income.

72

poverty line

the federal governments calculation of the amount of income families of various sizes need to stay out of poverty.

73

capitalism

an economic system characterized by private ownership of productive assets where most decisions about how to use these assets are made by individuals and firms operating in a market rather than by government.

74

labor unions

an organization representing employees that bargains with employers over wages, benefits, and working conditions.

75

globalization

the tendency of information, products, and financial capital to flow across national borders, with the effects of more tightly integrating the global economy.

76

political culture

the set of core beliefs in a country that help shape how people behave politically and what they believe the government should do.

77

populism

the belief that the common person is every bit as good as those with wealth and power.