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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (132):
1

Sucking and rooting reflex

birth-4 mo

2

Moro reflex

birth-4 mo (infant's arms and legs symmetrically extend)

3

Startle reflex

birth-4 mo

4

Palmar grasp reflex

birth-3 mo

5

Plantar grasp reflex

birth-8 mo (toes curl downward)

6

Tonic neck reflex

birth- 3-4 mo (extends arm and leg on side neck is turned and flexes opposite arm and leg)

7

Babinski reflex

birth-1 yr (toes up and out)

8

Stepping reflex

birth-4 wks

9

CN I (olfactory nerve)

difficult to test. smells through each nostril individually.

10

CN II (optic nerve)

tracks face with eyes.

11

CN III (oculomotor nerve)

blinks in response to light

12

CN IV (trochlear nerve)

tracks face with eyes

13

CN VI (abducens nerve)

tracks face with eyes

14

CN VII (facial nerve)

symmetric facial movements

15

CN VIII (acoustic nerve)

tracks sound. blinks in response to a loud noise

16

CN V (trigeminal nerve)

has rooting and sucking reflexes

17

CN IX (glossopharyngeal nerve)

has intact gag reflex

18

CN X (vagus nerve)

no difficulties swallowing

19

CN XI (spinal accessory nerve)

moves shoulders symmetrically

20

CN XII (hypoglossal nerve)

no difficulties swallowing. opens mouth when nares are occluded.

21

birth weight doubled by

5 mo

22

birth weight tripled by

1 yr

23

first teeth

6-10 mo

24

separation anxiety

4-8 mo

25

stranger fear

6-8 mo

26

1 mo milestone

gross- demonstrates head lag
fine- strong grasp reflex

27

2 mo milestone

gross- lifts head when prone
fine-hands open/grasp fading

28

3 mo milestone

gross- lifts head and shoulders when prone
fine- hands loosely open/ no grasp reflex

29

4 mo milestone

gross-rolls from back to side
fine- grasps objects

30

5 mo milestone

gross- rolls from front to back
fine- plamar grasp dominantly

31

6 mo milestone

gross- rolls from back to front
fine- holds bottle

32

7 mo milestone

gross-full weight on feet/sits leaning forward on hands
fine-moves object between hands

33

8 mo milestone

gross- sits unsupported
fine- pincer grasp

34

9 mo milestone

gross-pulls up/creeps on hands and knees
fine-crude pincer grasp

35

10 mo milestone

gross- from prone to sitting
fine-grasps rattle by handle

36

11 mo milestone

gross-walks holding on to something or one hand held
fine-places object in container/neat pincer grasp

37

12 mo milestone

gross- sit from standing without assist
fine- unsuccessful 2 block tower/turn pgs in book

38

15 mo milestone

gross- walks without help/creeps up stairs
fine-uses cup well/builds tower of 2 blocks

39

18 mo milestone

gross-runs clumsily/throws ball overhand/jumps in place with both feet/pulls and pushes toys
fine- manages spoon without rotation/.turns multiple pgs in book/tower of 3-4 blocks

40

24 mo milestone

gross- walks up and down stairs
fine- tower of 6-7 blocks/turns pgs one at time

41

30 mo milestone

gross- jumps across floor and off step with both feet/stands on one foot momentarily/takes a few steps on tiptoe
fine- draws circle/good hand-finger coordination

42

3 yr milestone

gross- rides tricycle/jumps off bottom step/stands on one foot for a few seconds

43

4 yr milestone

gross- skips & hops on one foot/throws ball overhead/catches ball reliably

44

5 mo milestone

gross-jumps rope/walks backward with heel to toe/throws and catches a ball with ease

45

first signs of puberty for girls

breasts
pubic hair
axillary hair
menstruation

46

first signs of puberty for boys

testicular enlargement
pubic hair
penile enlargement
axillary hair
facial hair growth
vocal changes

47

Hep B vaccinations

birth, 1-2 mo, 6-18 mo (3 doses)

48

RV vaccinations

2 mo, 4 mo, 6mo (3 doses)

49

DTap vaccinations

2 mo, 4 mo, 6mo, 15-18 mo, 4-6 yrs (5 doses)

50

Hib vaccinations

2 mo, 4 mo, 6mo, 12-15 mo (4 doses)

51

PCV13 vaccinations

2mo, 4 mo, 6mo, 12-15 mo (4 doses)

52

IPV vaccinations

2 mo, 4 mo, 6-18 mo (3 doses)

53

Influenza vaccinations

YEARLY 6 mo-6 yrs

54

MMR vaccinations

12-15 mo, 4-6 yrs (2 doses)

55

Hep A vaccinations

12-23 mo (1 dose)

56

Varicella vaccinations

12-15 mo, 4-6 yrs (2 doses)

57

Infants- Erikson

trust vs. mistrust

58

Toddler- Erikson

autonomy vs. shame&doubt

59

Preschool-Erikson

initiative vs. guilt

60

School age-Erikson

industry vs.inferiority

61

Adolescence-Erikson

identity vs. role confusion

62

Infants- Freud

oral

63

Toddlers-Freud

anal

64

Preschool- Freud

phallic

65

School age- Freud

latency

66

Adolescence-Freud

genital

67

Infants- Piaget

sensorimotor (birth-2yr)

68

Toddlers- Piaget

sensorimotor (1-2yr)
preconceptual 2-4yr
preoperational (2-7yr)

69

Preschoolers-Piaget

preconceptual (2-4yr)
preoperational (2-7 yr)
intuitive thought (4-7 yr)

70

School age- Piaget

concrete operations (7-11 yr)

71

Adolescence- Piaget

formal operations (12 yr-adulthood)

72

Toddler-Kohlberg

preconventional

73

Preschoolers-Kohlberg

preconventional

74

School age-Kohlberg

conventional

75

Adolescence-Kohlberg

post conventional

76

Tdap vaccine

once @ 11-12yr & with every pregnancy

77

TD vaccine

every 10 yrs after Tdap

78

Diphtheria precautions

droplet precautions

79

Diphtheria characteristics and s/s

thick, bluish white patch covers the tonsils
fever, anorexia, malaise, cough, hoarseness, odor, sore throat

80

Diphtheria treatment

Iv antitoxin, Pen G, bedrest, monitor for respiratory obstruction

81

Tetanus mech of action & s/s

attacks CNS
stiff neck and jaw, facial spasm, difficulty swallowing, facial rigidity

82

Tetanus complications

respiratory distress, laryngospasm

83

Tetanus treatment

tetanus immunoglobulin, ICU, ventilator support

84

Diphtheria complications

myocarditis, ascending paralysis

85

Pertussis/Whooping cough precautions

droplets and direct contact

86

Pertussis/Whooping cough s/s

runny nose, cough and spasms, flushing, cyanosis, vomiting

87

Pertussis/Whooping cough complications

pneumonia, seizures, hemmorhage, hernia

88

Pertussis/Whooping cough treatment

antibiotics, steroids

89

Poliomyelitis s/s

fever, headache, stiff neck, progressive weakness, respiratory difficulties, paralysis

90

Poliomyelitis complications

permanent motor paralysis, respiratory arrest

91

Poliomyelitis treatment & prevention

supportive
IPV

92

Polio live vaccine associated with

paralysis

93

Rubeola (measles)

viral
incubation: 10-21 days
contagious 4 days before to 5 days after rash

94

Rubeola (measles) precautions

airborne precautions

95

Rubeola (measles) s/s

prodromal: fever, malaise, cough, conjunctivitis , koplik spots
eruptive: first on back of ears, upper neck and forehead then gradually spreads downward
*greatest concentration on face and trunk

96

Rubeola (measles) treatment &prevention

fever control, eye care, dim lights, encourage fluids
MMR vaccine

97

Mumps precautions

direct contact or droplet

98

Mumps s/s

malaise, low grade fever, earache, headache, pain with chewing, swelling parotid gland

99

Mumps complications

orchiditis(inflammation of testicles) & deafness

100

Mumps treatment and prevention

supportive
MMR

101

Rubella (German measles)

viral
incubation: 14-21 days
(highly) contagious: 7 days before and after rash
*rash lasts 2-3 days

102

Rubella (German measles) s/s

rash on face first and rapidly spreads down neck, arms, trunk, and legs

103

Rubella (German measles) precautions

nasopharyngeal secretions
direct contact (w/freshly contaminated)

104

Rubella (German measles) treatment and prevention

comfort measures
**ISOLATE FROM PREGNANT WOMEN
MMR vaccine

105

Varicella (chicken pox)

virus
incubation: 2-3 wks (10-14 days)
contagious: 1 day before rash until all lesions crusted

106

Varicella (chicken pox) precautions

droplet

107

Varicella (chicken pox) s/s

prodromal: fever, malaise, anorexia
rash--> crustation

108

Varicella (chicken pox) treatment &prevention

control itching/prevent scratching
VAR vaccine

109

Erythema Infectiosum (5th disease) incubation

4-14 days

110

Erythema Infectiosum (5th disease) s/s

slapped cheek appearance, in 1-4 days rash on trunk and extremities

111

Erythema Infectiosum (5th disease) precautions

respiratory secretions and blood

112

Erythema Infectiosum (5th disease) treatment

symptomatic and monitor for anemia
*AVOID PREGNANT WOMEN

113

Scarlet fever s/s

fever, headache, vomiting, chills, sore throat
*white strawberry tongue then red
*rash, peel

114

Scarlet fever treatment

antibiotics and hydration

115

Roseola Infantum

viral
6 mo-2 yrs

116

Roseola Infantum s/s

high fever for 3-4 days, drop in fever then rash, on trunk then neck, face, and extremities (1-2days)

117

Rotavirus

causes severe diarrhea
incubation: 2 days
s/s: vomiting, diarrhea for 3-8 days, fever, abdominal pain
prevention: rotavirus vaccine (oral)

118

HPV vaccine

11-12 yrs thru 21 yrs (males) and 26 yrs (females)

119

Pinworms transmission

ingested, inhaled, poor hygiene after toliet

120

Pinworms incubation

eggs hatch and mature in 2-4 wks

121

Pinworms s/s

perineal itiching, sleep problems, enuresis, ova and parasite in stool

122

Pinworms treatment

albendazole
*treat all in house

123

Roundworms transmission

contaminated food or hands

124

Roundworms s/s

loss of appetite, N/V, intestinal obstruction

125

Roundworms treatment and prevention

single dose of antihelmintic
sanitary disposal of feces

126

Scabies s/s

black burrow filled with mite feces (btw fingers, toes, on palms, axilla, or around waist and groin)

127

Scabies treatment

wash area with lindane or elimite

128

Head lice transmission

sharing personal items

129

Head lice incubation

eggs hatch in 7-10 days

130

Head lice s/s

intense itching, nits attached to base of hair shaft

131

Head lice treatment and prevention

Lindane, permethrin, pyrethrin
shampoo immediately and 7-10 days later
comb out nits
separate everything

132

Sub Q vaccinations

IPV, MMR, VAR