Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (66):
What is the terminal e- acceptor in aerobes?
What is the terminal e- acceptor in anaerobes?
CO2, Fe, NO2, other stuff
What type of energy source do autotrophs use?
simple chemicals ie: CO2
What type of energy source do heterotrophs use?
complex chemicals ie: glucose
What is catabolism?
breaking down of molecules = release free energy
Are hydrolysis and oxidation reactions examples of anabolism or catabolism?
What is anabolism?
ionizing/synthesizing molecules = use free energy
Are reduction and condensation reactions examples of anabolism or catabolism?
What is a dehydrogenase?
What is NAD+ used as in glycolysis?
cofactor - hydride acceptor, e- acceptor
What is Le Chatlier's principle?
process - a system at equilibrium will try to remain in equilibrium
What is Hess's Law?
reactions can be added together from different sets of reactions
How to convert from Celcius to Kelvin?
What are standard conditions? (M, temp in Celcius, and pressure)
1M, 25C, 1atm
Why are the standard conditions not adequate for biological conditions?
pH does not = ~7 if [H+] = 1M
What is the transformed standard state?
pH=~7, 1M solutes, 25C, 1atm
What does transformed mean when talking about standard conditions?
standard conditions have been altered to become adequate for biological conditions
What is the thermodynamics equation?
∆Gº = ∆Gº' + RT ln(Q or K)
What does "Q" stand for in thermodynamics?
concentrations at new state
What does "K" stand for in thermodynamics?
What does exergonic mean?
entropy, spontaneous (-∆G)
What does endergonic mean?
enthalpy, non-spontaneous (+∆G)
What is Acetyl-CoA?
acetate covalently bound to coenzyme A via a thioester.
What does DHAP stand for?
Where does the Pentose Phosphate Pathway occur?
adipose and liver
Where does Lactic Acid Fermentation occur?
brain and muscle
Where does Glycolysis occur?
brain and muscle
Where does Glucogenesis occur?
liver (70%) and kidneys (30%)
What role does Mg2+ play in Glycolysis?
What significant role does hexokinase play in relation to glucose?
phosphorylates glucose = influx of glucose into cell --- phosphorylation prevents glucose going out of the cell
What is hexokinase allosterically controlled by?
What is a hemiketal?
What is a hemiacetal?
What is a hemiacetal?
What is an imminum?
a protonated Schiff base (an e- sink!)
What is an imine structure?
What is an imminium structure?
How is PFK-1 allosterically controlled?
by ATP binding to the allosteric site
How many binding sites PFK-1 has?
2 = active and allosteric sites
What are Class I Aldolases?
(for plants/animals) lysine = imminium ion
Based on Le Chatlier's Principle, what direction does the reaction go if there is more product than substrate?
leads to substrate formation (backward reaction)
Based on Le Chatlier's Principle, what direction does the reaction go if there is more substrate than product?
leads to product formation (forward reaction)
What are Class II Aldolases?
(for bacteria and fungi) Zinc = coordinate bond with O=C...
In step 6 of Glycolysis, what acts as the nucleophile?
In step 6 of Glycolysis, what acts as the general base?
What intermediates are formed in step 2 of Glycolysis? (Gluc>G6P)
enolate and enediol
What intermediates are formed in step 4 of Glycolysis? (F-1,6-P>DHAP/G3P)
imminium and eneamine
What intermediates are formed in step 5 of Glycolysis? (DHAP>G3P)
What intermediates are formed in step 6 of Glycolysis? (G3P>1,3-BPG)
What steps in Glycolysis use ATP?
Steps 1 and 3
What steps in Glycolysis make ATP?
Steps 7 and 10
What product in Glycolysis is considered a "high-energy intermediate"?
What organisms use the phosphoglycerate mutase via the INTERmolecular pathway? What intermediate does this form?
yeast and rabbit, phosphohistidine intermediate
What organisms use the phosphoglycerate mutase via the INTRAmolecular pathway? What intermediate does this form?
bacillus and wheat germ, phosphoserine intermediate
In Enolase used in step 9 of Glycolysis, what acts as the general base?
In Enolase used in step 9 of Glycolysis, what acts as the general acid?
In step 9 of Glycolysis, what is the role of Mg2+?
polarizes oxygens near the acidic alpha-H in order for a base to pick it up
Which pathway and what alternative will Galactose undergo?
Le Loir pathway to make G6P
What enzymes and products will be formed from Mannose?
(HK) = M6P --> (phophomanno-isomerase) = F6P
What enzymes and products will be formed from Glycerol?
(glycerol kinase) = glycerolphosphate = DHAP
What enzyme is used to convert starch/glycogen (from food) into glucose?
What enzymes are used and steps will Fructose undergo?
(Fructokinase) =F16 --> (F16 aldolase) = step 5 glycolysis
What will Fructose form with hexokinase?
What enzymes used and products formed from Sucrose?
(sucrase) = glucose & fructose
What enzymes and intermediates will endogenous glycogen use to form G6P?
1-phosphorylase, 2- glycogen debranching enzyme, 3- phosphoglucomutase