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What are the two components of tumors

Neoplasticism cells that constitute the parenchyma and reactive stroma made up of connective tissue, bv, and cells of the immune system; *growth and spread dependent on stroma


What is a desmoplasia

Neoplasm where the parenchyma cells stimulate formation of collagenous stroma; *ie: cancers of the breast; can make them stony hard, referrered to as scirrhous


What are adenomas

Benign epithelial neoplasms arising from glands


What are papillomas

Benign epithelial neoplasms producing finger like or warty projections


What is a polyp

When a neoplasms produces a visible projection above a mucosal surface (if in glandular tissue, called adenomatous polyp)


What are sarcomas

Malignant tumors arising in solid mesenchymal tissues (fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma)


What are carcinomas

Malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin (derived from germ layers)


What is an example of a mixed tumor

Mixed tumor of salivary gland; contains epithelial components scattered with a myxoid stroma that may contain cartilage or bone; all arise from a single clone capable of producing both epithelial and myoepithlial cells *called pleomorphic adenoma


What is a dermoid cyst

Ovarian cystic teratoma


What are hamartomas

Disorganized benign masses composed of cells indigenous to involved site


What is a choristoma

Heterotropic rest of cells; ie: well developed and normally organizers pancreatic tissue in submucosa of stomach


What are the tumors of mesenchymal origin

Benign: fibromyalgia, lipoma, chondroma, osteoma
Malignant: Fibrosarcoma, Liposarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma


What are the tumors of vessels and surface coverings

Benign: hemangioma, lymphangioma, benign fibrous tumor (from mesothelium), meningioma
Malignant: angiosarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma, mesothelioma, invasive meningioma


What are the tumors from blood cells and related cells

Only malignant types: leukemia and lymphoma


What are the tumors of muscle origin

benign: Leiomyoma (smooth m) and rhabdomyoma (striated)
Malignant: leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma


What are the tumors of epithelial origin

Benign: squamous cell papilloma (strat squamous), adenoma, papilloma, cystadenoma, bronchial adenoma, renal tubular adenoma, hepatic adenoma, transitional cell papilloma (urinary tract), hydatidiform mole, Nevus (melanocytes)
Malignant: squamous cell carcinoma; basal cells carcinoma (basal cells of skin or adnexa), adenocarcinoma, papillary carcinomas, cystadenocarcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, seminoma and embryonal carcinoma (germ cells), malignant melanoma


What are the mixed tumors

Benign: pleomorphic adenoma
Malignant: malignant mixed tumor of salivary origin, Wilms tumor (renal anlage)
***derived from ONE germ layer


What are the teratogenous tumors

Benign: mature teratoma, dermoid cyst
Malignant: Immature teratoma, teratocarcinoma
*** derived from more than one germ layer


What is anaplasia

Lack of differentiation of tumor; considered hallmark of malignancy


Are benign or malignant tumors well differentiated

Benign; malignant exhibit wide range of differentiation and most exhibit alternations that betray their malignant nature


What other morphological changes is often associated with anaplasia

-pleomorphism: variation in size and shape (tumor giant cells)
-abnormal nuclear morphology: nuclei are disproportionately large w/ nuclear:cytoplasm ratio of 1:1; nuclear shape irregular and coarsely clumped (hyperchromatic)
-mitoses: many cells in mitosis (atypical, bizarre mitotic figures)
-loss of polarity: grow in disorganized fashion
-can develop large areas of ischemic necrosis because require large vascular supply


What is carcinoma in situ

Dysplastic changes that involve the full thickness of the epithelium but does not penetrate basement membrane; once it breaches, is referred to as invasive


What forms the capsule in benign tumors

ECM deposits stimulated by hypoxic damage resulting from pressure of expanding tumors; does not limit growth of tumor, but rather creates. The tumor to be discrete, readily palpable, moveable and easily excusable: exception - hemangiomas -> may not be able to be respected because unencapsulated and permeate the site in which they arises


What are examples of malignancies that do not often metastasize

Gliomas and basal cell carcinomas; invade but do not met


How can cancers spread

-direct seeding of body cavities or surfaces: most often in peritoneal cavity; particularly characteristic of ovaries (can fill cavity with pseudomyxoma peritonei: gelatinous neoplastic mass)
-lymphatic spread: most common for carcinomas but sarcomas can also use this route; sentinel LN = first node in regional lymphatic basin that receives lymph flow from primary tumor;
-hematogenous spread: typical of sarcomas, but also seen with carcinomas; veins more easily penetrated; liver and lungs most frequently involved; vertebral Mets associated with carcinomas of prostate and thyroid


What cancers have a propensity for invading veins

Renal cell carcinoma: renal vein -> IVC sometimes to right side of heart
Hepatocellular carcinomas: portal and hepatic radicles


Where does breast carcinoma spread



Where does bronchogenic carcinoma typically spread

Brain and adrenals


Where does neuroblastoma typically spread

Liver and bones


What are the most common tumors in men

Prostate, lung and colon/rectum