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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (69):
1

Family Stressors

Vertical and horizontal stressors

2

Vertical Stressors

Historical and inherited from previous generations

Family patterns, myths, expectations, secrets, legacies

THE NARRATIVE

This is the hand we are dealt, sexism, poverty, racism

3

Horizontal Stressors

Event stressors

PRESENT

Developmental like life cycle transitions

Also unpredictable like an untimely dearth, accident, natural disaster, lottery

4

Family Life cycle stages (traditional)

1. Married Couple
2. Childbearing family
3. Preschool children
4. School children
5. Teens
6. Launching kids
7. Middle aged parents
8.Aging family members

5

Life cycle stage one, leaving home

-accept emotional and financial responsibility for ones self

Differentiate, develop peer friendships, reallign with FOO

6

Second Stage: Join families through marriage as a new couple

Commitment to new system

Marital system, negotiate intimacy, become we without losing I

7

Thirds FLC stage: fam with young kids

Accepting new members into system

Make space for kids, join in time rearing, new roles established, and not sacrificing couple

8

FLC fourth stage, fam with adolescents

Increasing flexibility of family boundaries to allow more independence and grandparent frailties

Shift in parent child relationships, look multiculturaly different, rule and boundaries being renegotiated

9

FLC fifth stage, launching of kids “empty nest”

Accepting multiple exits from and into system

Renegotiate marriage, develop adult to adult relationship with kids, death of parents, new family members

10

6ht stage FLC, families in later life

Accepting shift of generational roles

Maintain own and couple functioning as aging

Room for older generation and middle become more central

Retirement, widowhood, chronic illness

11

FLC stages for divorcing families

-decision to divorce

Planning breakup of system

Separation

Divorce

Accepting ones own part in the failure of the marriage and mourning loss of intact family.

Have to restricting marital and all relationships in fam

12

FLC stages remarried family

Enter new relationship

Conceptualize planning new fam and marriage

Openness to new fam and readiness to deal with complexities

13

FLC stages Single parent family

Some choosing this some not choosing

Added stress to “normal” cycle

Harder transitions

14

FLC stages, gay and lesbian family

Have to cope with larger stigma

Still marginalized

Pressure to remain secretive or closeted

15

Family life cycle

The series of longitudinal stages or events that mark a family’s life offering an organizing scheme for viewing the family as a system proceeding through time

16

Developmental tasks

Problems to be overcome and conflicts to be mastered at various stages of the life cycle

Enable movement to next stage

17

Circular causality

The view that causality is nonlinear, occurring instead within a relationship context and through a network of interacting loops

Any cause is seen as an effect of a prior cause, as in interactions within family

18

Constructivism

The belief that an individuals knowledge of reality result from his or her subjective perceiving and subsequent constructing or inventing of the world, rather than how to i world objectively exists (second order cybernetics)

19

Cybernetics

The study of methods of feedback control within a system, especially the flow of info through feedback loops.

Concerned with systemic processes:
Info regulation
Adaptation
Self organization
Self reproduction
Strategic behavior
Maintaining homeostasis

20

Double bind concept

Bateson, Lidz, Bowen

Contradictions in levels of messages, result in conflicting and contradictory messages. Believed at the time to cause schizophrenia

DOUBLE BIND: individual.child receives conflicting messages from the same person, result in in confusing messages/expressions of love/hate

No matter how the child responds, its “wrong”

Creates panic, rage, then withdrawal

21

Dyad

A liaison, temporary or permanent, between two persons

22

Ecosystem approach

A perspective that goes beyond intrafamilial relationships to attend to the family’s relationships with larger systems (school, court, healthcare, etc)

23

Ethnicity

Defining characteristics of a social group with shared cultural traditions that carry on over generations and is reinforced within the group

24

Feedback

Reinsertation into a system of the results of it’s past performance as a method of controlling the system.

25

First order cybernetics

Universal laws or codes were sought to explain what governs all systems.

Gregory bateson “ all changes can be understood as an effort to maintain some constancy” applied this scientific system to human communicatoon

26

Family system

A social and or biological construction made up of a set of people related by blood or intention

Defined as a whole made up of interacting parts

27

Wholeness

Elements of a system once combined produce an entity, a whole, that is greater than the sum of its parts

Movement of one part influences the whole

No element of a system can ever be understood in isolation since it never functions independently

28

Subsystems

Each system exists as a part of a larger SUPRASYSTEM which has smaller subsystems

People exist in numerous subsystems which are in interaction with one another

In families most enduring subsystems are the spousal, parental, and sibling subsystems

29

Organization

Systems are organized around the relationships that exist within them

Family members interact with each other in a predictable organized fashion

Organization offers clues to family’s interactive patterns

30

Family homeostasis

A family’s self regulating efforts to remain stable and resist change

BATESON AND JACKSON believed families resist change and returned to state before being threatened.

Clinicians today believe that homeostasis represents the tendency to seek a steady state when a system is perturbed

Healthy families are resilient and able to adapt/change when needed without forfeiting long term stability

31

Feedback loops

Feedback happens in loops


Circular mechanisms whose purpose is to introduce info about a systems output back to its input

Allows system to alter, correct and overnight its ability to function and remain viable

32

Negative (attenuating) feedback

Function is to MAINTAIN

Keep the status quo/ homeostasis

Wants to keep system on track and stable

Keeps functioning within limits and discourages change

33

Positive (amplifying) feedback

Function is to MODIFY the system

Accommodates new info to make changes

Amplifies deviations to increase instability and facilitates meeting new goals

ENGAGES, GROWS, EXPANDS

34

Impact of WW2 on family therapy

Reuniting of families created problems (change of role of women etc)

Macy Foundation conferenced during and after the war to understand how human systems worked

Traumatic shock and wartime neurosis (psychosomatic illness)

35

When was family therapy founded

The 1950’s

36

Studies of schizophrenia and the family

Emphasized the family environment to understand psychopathology

Schizophrenogenic mom (domineering cold, rejecting, shaming, possessive) which combined with a passive, detached, ineffectual father creates a MALE offspring who feels confused and inadequate who developed schizophrenia

This was ultimately DISPROVED as it was linear and overly simplified

BUT as a result more attention was given to dysfunctional interactions in family, family context, shared family experience, and family communications affect on individuals mental health

37

Marital schism

Each parent is preoccupied with their own problems

Fail to make reciprocal role with spouse

Undermines worth of other parent

Parents compete for loyalty/support of kids.

Marriage threatened

38

Marital skew

One parent is dependent and weak

Other parent psychologically disturbed and domineering

Children grow up thinking that is normal and their reality is distorted

39

Marriage and premarital counseling

Precursor to family therapy

Psychological disturbances arise from conflicts BETWEEN persons (vs conflict WITHIN a person)

Clergy and physicians are providers historically

Sex counseling in the 60s

40

Child guidance movement

Early 1900s

Assumed that if emotional problems start in childhood that’s identifying and treating early could prevent psychopathology

ADLER AND DREIKURS

Early intervention
Have parents involved and acknowledging impact of social system

Collab with professionals in treatment

41

Group dynamics and therapy

Emerged more fully after WW11

Family therapy a subset of group therapy

Groups make interpersonal situations

Safe place to recreate interactions and resolve conflicts

42

Nathan Ackerman

Father of family therapy

Child psychoanalyst in the child guidance movement

Wrong first paper dealing with treating whole paper

Suggesting the usefulness of viewing whole family as an entity

43

How to evaluate theories

Comprehensive? Generalizable but not too simple

Parsimonious? Explanation with as few assumptions as necessary

Verifiable? Generate predictions that can be confirmed with data

Precise? Concepts defined

Empirically valid? Data confirms theory

Stimulating? Lead to other thoughts and ideas

44

Little Hans case

Freud worked with his father

Was afraid of horses

Freud communicated with the father how to work with little Hans which was successful

Freud didnt see Hans or the family system

45

Object relations theory

We relate to people in the present on the basis of expectations formed by early relationship experiences

Branch of psychoanalytic theory developed in Britain

Attention to individual drives/motives, development of the self, unconscious relationship seeking

46

Impact of attachment between mother and child

Attachment to mother is FOUNDATIONAL to the development of self/self identity

Object relations, infants experiences in relationship and attachment with mom/caretaker as the mail determinant of adult personality being formed

This relationship impacts unconscious views of self and others

INTERNALIZED subjective representation of the “other” is created and is later projected onto others

47

Splitting

Infant experiences different sets of encounters with the mother, sometimes nurturing and attentive and at other times dismissive and distracted


Internalizes image of mom as good object and bad object and forms SEPARATE relationships with each

Infant cant leave the relationship so has to reconcile the two distinct experiences with mom thru fantasy world


Good is idealized, bad is seen as rejecting

By 2 years old most kids integrate both, HOW WELL THIS IS DONE EQUALS THE HEALTH OF FUTURE RELATIONSHIPS.

SPLITTING IN ADULTHOOD LEADS TO VIEWING PEOPLE AS ALL GOOD OR ALL BAD. Makes instability in relationships

48

Projective identification

Melanie Klein, object relations theory

Defending unconsciously against anxiety by projecting or externalities unwanted parts of self (split off parts) INTO others

What wwe don’t like in ourselves we get annoyed with with others

49

Impact of Psychoanalytic theory on family systems theory

Many pioneers were psychoanalytically trained such as Ackerman, Bowen, lids, Jackson, minuchen, Wynn boszorenyi-Nagy ‘

Freud: awareness of the impact of family relationships on individuals personality development (unconscious conflict, resistance, transference)

Adler: theory based on social relationships. FAMILY IS BASIC SOCIAL SYSTEM

Sullivan: ROLE OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP

50

Ackerman’s interlocking pathology

Interdependence and reciprocal effect of disturbed behavior among various members of a family (eg: an individual “getting better” may result in an eventual divorce)

An individuals personally should be assessed no in isolation but within the social and emotion context of the whole family

51

Contextual family therapy

Boszormenyi-Nagy

- a theory that integrate and balance individuality and togetherness

Environment and people give the action context to interpret concepts of self

Relationships ar based on and influenced by 4 dimensions of reality: facts, individual psychology, systemic interactions, relational ethics


52

Contextual family therapy (CFT) relational ethics

Sets CFT apart

Deals with balance of what people GIVE in relationships as opposed to what they are ENTITLED to from others

Clients Myst assume responsibility for their actions

Wants to build relational resource of trustworthiness

Subject: constructed among relational members

LONG TERM OSCILLATING BALANCE OF FAIRNESS AMONG MEMBERS WITHIN A FAMILY

BOTH INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY (INSIDE A PERSON) AND SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS (WITHIN THE FAMILY)

53

CFT: trust

Fundamental property of relationships

Can be depleted or restored depending on the capacity of family members to act upon a sense of loyalty and indebtedness

54

CFT invisible loyalty

Children unconsciously take on responsibilities to aid their parents, often to their own detriments

55

CFT family ledger

Family “obligations” and “debts” incurred over time are kept here

Who still owes what to whom

56

CFT fairness

The therapeutic goal is to establish fairness by improving and rebalancing the give and take between family members

57

Bowen Differentiation of self

When family members are able to find a balance between the two life forces of togetherness and individuality

58

Bowens two life forces

Togetherness and individuality

59

Bowen Differentiation scale

0 is fusion, 100 is differentiation

Below 50 (low differentiation): tries to please others, supports others seeks support. Can’t been autonomous, little ability to independently solve problems

51-75 (midrange): has definite beliefs and values, tends to be over concerted with the opinions of others, may decide emotionally or based or disapproval of others

76-100 (high differentiation) clear values and beliefs, flexible secure, autonomous, well defined sense of self

60

Degree of differentiation

Reflects degree of emotional independence from family

61

Fusion

We statements

Ask what they think
Cannot separate themselves from others

React emotionally to the dictates of other family members

62

Differentiated

Able to take a stand on issues because they theink through, decide then act

Can be intimate without being reactively shaped by others

I statements

63

Triangulation

A common way for two person systems under stress to try to become stable, go to a third for an ally

64

Emotional cut off

A personas attempt at separating themselves from an emotionally fused family in order to insulate from chaos

Attempt to minimize importance of relationships to avoid pain of unresolved issues in relationships

Creates isolation

DOESNT END EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS

These people tend to have Brief superficial relationships with others as a result

65

Genogram

A Vistula representation of a persons family tree

Help clients visualize their family structure, multigenerational patterns, and interpersonal family projection process

66

Suprasystem

Each system exists as part of the larger suprasystem

67

Holding environment

DW Winnecott

The safe and nurturing environment provided by the mother to her infant that supports good enough psychological development

68

Symbiosis

Mother and child

Intense enmeshment

69

Influence of Bowlby

Considered attachment and loss to be central to functioning